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Gastroesophageal Reflux
Steven J. Kraus, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), GER disease (GERD)
          • Definitions

            • GER: Retrograde flow of gastric contents into esophagus
              • Physiologic phenomenon, especially in young infants
            • GERD: GER causes clinical symptoms or tissue damage

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Liu YW et al: The correlation between endoscopic reflux esophagitis and combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in children. Pediatr Neonatol. ePub, 2015
                                      2. Vandenplas Y et al: An updated review on gastro-esophageal reflux in pediatrics. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 9(12):1511-21, 2015
                                      3. Ferreira CT et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: exaggerations, evidence and clinical practice. J Pediatr (Rio J). 90(2):105-18, 2014
                                      4. Codreanu I et al: Effects of the frame acquisition rate on the sensitivity of gastro-oesophageal reflux scintigraphy. Br J Radiol. 86(1026):20130084, 2013
                                      5. Knatten CK et al: Gastric emptying in children with gastroesophageal reflux and in healthy children. J Pediatr Surg. 48(9):1856-61, 2013
                                      6. Lightdale JR et al: Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician. Pediatrics. 131(5):e1684-95, 2013
                                      7. Fike FB et al: Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants. Pediatr Surg Int. 27(8):791-7, 2011
                                      8. Machado RS et al: Gastric emptying evaluation in children with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 26(5):473-8, 2010
                                      9. Valusek PA et al: Does an upper gastrointestinal study change operative management for gastroesophageal reflux? J Pediatr Surg. 45(6):1169-72, 2010
                                      10. Tannuri AC et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: efficacy of Nissen fundoplication in treating digestive and respiratory symptoms. Experience of a single center. Dis Esophagus. 21(8):746-50, 2008
                                      11. Baker ME et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: integrating the barium esophagram before and after antireflux surgery. Radiology. 243(2):329-39, 2007
                                      12. Boyle JT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2006. The imperfect diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol. 36 Suppl 2:192-5, 2006
                                      13. Canon CL et al: Surgical approach to gastroesophageal reflux disease: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics. 25(6):1485-99, 2005
                                      14. Demirbilek S et al: Delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of malrotation. Pediatr Surg Int. 21(6):423-7, 2005
                                      15. Gold BD: Review article: epidemiology and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 19 Suppl 1:22-7, 2004
                                      16. Tolia V et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: review of presenting symptoms, evaluation, management, and outcome in infants. Dig Dis Sci. 48(9):1723-9, 2003
                                      17. El-Serag HB et al: Endoscopic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients between 18 months and 25 years without neurological deficits. Am J Gastroenterol. 97(7):1635-9, 2002
                                      18. Gremse DA: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: an overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 35 Suppl 4:S297-9, 2002
                                      19. Jang HS et al: Correlation of color Doppler sonographic findings with pH measurements in gastroesophageal reflux in children. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(4):212-7, 2001
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), GER disease (GERD)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • GER: Retrograde flow of gastric contents into esophagus
                                                  • Physiologic phenomenon, especially in young infants
                                                • GERD: GER causes clinical symptoms or tissue damage

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Liu YW et al: The correlation between endoscopic reflux esophagitis and combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in children. Pediatr Neonatol. ePub, 2015
                                                                          2. Vandenplas Y et al: An updated review on gastro-esophageal reflux in pediatrics. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 9(12):1511-21, 2015
                                                                          3. Ferreira CT et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: exaggerations, evidence and clinical practice. J Pediatr (Rio J). 90(2):105-18, 2014
                                                                          4. Codreanu I et al: Effects of the frame acquisition rate on the sensitivity of gastro-oesophageal reflux scintigraphy. Br J Radiol. 86(1026):20130084, 2013
                                                                          5. Knatten CK et al: Gastric emptying in children with gastroesophageal reflux and in healthy children. J Pediatr Surg. 48(9):1856-61, 2013
                                                                          6. Lightdale JR et al: Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician. Pediatrics. 131(5):e1684-95, 2013
                                                                          7. Fike FB et al: Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants. Pediatr Surg Int. 27(8):791-7, 2011
                                                                          8. Machado RS et al: Gastric emptying evaluation in children with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 26(5):473-8, 2010
                                                                          9. Valusek PA et al: Does an upper gastrointestinal study change operative management for gastroesophageal reflux? J Pediatr Surg. 45(6):1169-72, 2010
                                                                          10. Tannuri AC et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: efficacy of Nissen fundoplication in treating digestive and respiratory symptoms. Experience of a single center. Dis Esophagus. 21(8):746-50, 2008
                                                                          11. Baker ME et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: integrating the barium esophagram before and after antireflux surgery. Radiology. 243(2):329-39, 2007
                                                                          12. Boyle JT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2006. The imperfect diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol. 36 Suppl 2:192-5, 2006
                                                                          13. Canon CL et al: Surgical approach to gastroesophageal reflux disease: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics. 25(6):1485-99, 2005
                                                                          14. Demirbilek S et al: Delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of malrotation. Pediatr Surg Int. 21(6):423-7, 2005
                                                                          15. Gold BD: Review article: epidemiology and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 19 Suppl 1:22-7, 2004
                                                                          16. Tolia V et al: Gastroesophageal reflux disease: review of presenting symptoms, evaluation, management, and outcome in infants. Dig Dis Sci. 48(9):1723-9, 2003
                                                                          17. El-Serag HB et al: Endoscopic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients between 18 months and 25 years without neurological deficits. Am J Gastroenterol. 97(7):1635-9, 2002
                                                                          18. Gremse DA: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: an overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 35 Suppl 4:S297-9, 2002
                                                                          19. Jang HS et al: Correlation of color Doppler sonographic findings with pH measurements in gastroesophageal reflux in children. J Clin Ultrasound. 29(4):212-7, 2001