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Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
Atif Zaheer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
              • Definitions

                • Submucosal tumor of gastrointestinal (GI) tract derived from interstitial cells of Cajal

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Mazer L et al: Minimally invasive options for gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach. Surg Endosc. 35(3):1324-30, 2021
                                                  2. Akin EA et al: Clinical impact of FDG PET/CT in alimentary tract malignancies: an updated review. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(4):1018-35, 2020
                                                  3. Bajaj G et al: Comprehensive review of abdominopelvic mesenchymal tumors with radiologic pathologic correlation and update on current treatment guidelines-part 2. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(2):239-59, 2020
                                                  4. Burch J et al: Cancer, gastrointestinal stromal (GIST). StatPearls, 2020
                                                  5. Wang J et al: Value of CT imaging in the differentiation of gastric leiomyoma from gastric stromal tumor. Can Assoc Radiol J. 846537119885671, 2020
                                                  6. Danti G et al: Relationship between diagnostic imaging features and prognostic outcomes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Acta Biomed. 90(5-S):9-19, 2019
                                                  7. Ogun GO et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): a review of cases from Nigeria. J Gastrointest Cancer. 51(3):729-37, 2019
                                                  8. Parab TM et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a comprehensive review. J Gastrointest Oncol. 10(1):144-54, 2019
                                                  9. Sharma NR et al: Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): a case series and current state of the art in the workup and treatment of this rare disease. J Gastrointest Cancer. 50(3):548-55, 2019
                                                  10. Theiss L et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and esophagus. Surg Clin North Am. 99(3):543-53, 2019
                                                  11. Waidhauser J et al: Frequency, localization, and types of gastrointestinal stromal tumor-associated neoplasia. World J Gastroenterol. 25(30):4261-77, 2019
                                                  12. Yang Z et al: Clinicopathological features and prognosis of 276 cases of primary small (≤ 2 cm) gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a multicenter data review. Surg Endosc. 33(9):2982-90, 2019
                                                  13. Al Momani LA et al: Recurrent gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Cureus. 10(6):e2854, 2018
                                                  14. Salati M et al: Heavily calcified gastrointestinal stromal tumors: pathophysiology and implications of a rare clinicopathologic entity. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 9(3):135-41, 2017
                                                  15. Søreide K et al: Global epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): a systematic review of population-based cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol. 40:39-46, 2016
                                                  16. Yang HK et al: Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Eur J Radiol. 84(9):1694-700, 2015
                                                  17. Tap WD et al: That's the "GIST" of it: use of adjuvant imatinib after resection of a primary GI stromal tumor. J Clin Oncol. 32(15):1543-6, 2014
                                                  18. Tirumani SH et al: MDCT features of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Br J Radiol. 87(1043):20140476, 2014
                                                  19. Ba-Ssalamah A et al: Texture-based classification of different gastric tumors at contrast-enhanced CT. Eur J Radiol. 82(10):e537-43, 2013
                                                  20. De Vogelaere K et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach: progresses in diagnosis and treatment. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 76(4):403-6, 2013
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                                              • Abbreviations

                                                                • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
                                                              • Definitions

                                                                • Submucosal tumor of gastrointestinal (GI) tract derived from interstitial cells of Cajal

                                                              IMAGING

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                                  • CT Findings

                                                                    • MR Findings

                                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Mazer L et al: Minimally invasive options for gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach. Surg Endosc. 35(3):1324-30, 2021
                                                                                                  2. Akin EA et al: Clinical impact of FDG PET/CT in alimentary tract malignancies: an updated review. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(4):1018-35, 2020
                                                                                                  3. Bajaj G et al: Comprehensive review of abdominopelvic mesenchymal tumors with radiologic pathologic correlation and update on current treatment guidelines-part 2. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(2):239-59, 2020
                                                                                                  4. Burch J et al: Cancer, gastrointestinal stromal (GIST). StatPearls, 2020
                                                                                                  5. Wang J et al: Value of CT imaging in the differentiation of gastric leiomyoma from gastric stromal tumor. Can Assoc Radiol J. 846537119885671, 2020
                                                                                                  6. Danti G et al: Relationship between diagnostic imaging features and prognostic outcomes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Acta Biomed. 90(5-S):9-19, 2019
                                                                                                  7. Ogun GO et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): a review of cases from Nigeria. J Gastrointest Cancer. 51(3):729-37, 2019
                                                                                                  8. Parab TM et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a comprehensive review. J Gastrointest Oncol. 10(1):144-54, 2019
                                                                                                  9. Sharma NR et al: Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): a case series and current state of the art in the workup and treatment of this rare disease. J Gastrointest Cancer. 50(3):548-55, 2019
                                                                                                  10. Theiss L et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach and esophagus. Surg Clin North Am. 99(3):543-53, 2019
                                                                                                  11. Waidhauser J et al: Frequency, localization, and types of gastrointestinal stromal tumor-associated neoplasia. World J Gastroenterol. 25(30):4261-77, 2019
                                                                                                  12. Yang Z et al: Clinicopathological features and prognosis of 276 cases of primary small (≤ 2 cm) gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a multicenter data review. Surg Endosc. 33(9):2982-90, 2019
                                                                                                  13. Al Momani LA et al: Recurrent gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Cureus. 10(6):e2854, 2018
                                                                                                  14. Salati M et al: Heavily calcified gastrointestinal stromal tumors: pathophysiology and implications of a rare clinicopathologic entity. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 9(3):135-41, 2017
                                                                                                  15. Søreide K et al: Global epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): a systematic review of population-based cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol. 40:39-46, 2016
                                                                                                  16. Yang HK et al: Leiomyomas in the gastric cardia: CT findings and differentiation from gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Eur J Radiol. 84(9):1694-700, 2015
                                                                                                  17. Tap WD et al: That's the "GIST" of it: use of adjuvant imatinib after resection of a primary GI stromal tumor. J Clin Oncol. 32(15):1543-6, 2014
                                                                                                  18. Tirumani SH et al: MDCT features of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Br J Radiol. 87(1043):20140476, 2014
                                                                                                  19. Ba-Ssalamah A et al: Texture-based classification of different gastric tumors at contrast-enhanced CT. Eur J Radiol. 82(10):e537-43, 2013
                                                                                                  20. De Vogelaere K et al: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach: progresses in diagnosis and treatment. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 76(4):403-6, 2013