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Genitourinary Interventions
Jennifer R. Buckley, MD; Brandt C. Wible, MD; Ashraf Thabet, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Preprocedure

    • Procedure

      • Post Procedure

        • Outcomes

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheter: Percutaneous catheter in renal collecting system for external drainage
            • Percutaneous nephroureteral (PCNU) catheter: Percutaneous catheter in renal collecting system that extends through ureter into bladder for internal or external drainage
            • Antegrade ureteral (double J) stent (AUS): Percutaneous stent extending through ureter from renal pelvis into urinary bladder for internal drainage
            • Suprapubic cystostomy (SPT): Percutaneous drainage or Foley catheter entering bladder above pubic symphysis for external drainage
            • Whitaker test: Invasive test used to confirm &/or identify urinary obstruction in equivocal cases via pressure measurements obtained from renal collecting system and bladder during antegrade infusion of dilute contrast

          PREPROCEDURE

          • Indications

            • Contraindications

              • Preprocedure Imaging

                • Getting Started

                  PROCEDURE

                  • Patient Position/Location

                    • Procedure Steps

                      • Findings and Reporting

                        • Alternative Procedures/Therapies

                          POST PROCEDURE

                          • Things to Do

                            • Things to Avoid

                              • Postprocedure Imaging

                                OUTCOMES

                                • Problems

                                  • Complications

                                    • Expected Outcome

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Basiri A et al: Ultrasound-guided access during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: entering desired calyx with appropriate entry site and angle. Int Braz J Urol. 42(6):1160-1167, 2016
                                      2. Hsu L et al: Use of percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting in management of ureteral obstruction. World J Nephrol. 5(2):172-81, 2016
                                      3. Pabon-Ramos WM et al: Quality improvement guidelines for percutaneous nephrostomy. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 27(3):410-4, 2016
                                      4. Burks FN et al: Management of iatrogenic ureteral injury. Ther Adv Urol. 6(3):115-24, 2014
                                      5. Kumar S et al: Efficacy and outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with calculus nephropathy. Urol Res. 39(2):111-5, 2011
                                      6. Montvilas P et al: Single-centre review of radiologically guided percutaneous nephrostomy using "mixed" technique: success and complication rates. Eur J Radiol. 80(2):553-8, 2011
                                      7. Veenboer PW et al: Antegrade pressure measurement as a diagnostic tool in modern pediatric urology. World J Urol. 29(6):737-41, 2011
                                      8. Barnacle AM et al: Nephro-urology interventions in children. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 13(4):229-37, 2010
                                      9. Lupton EW et al: The Whitaker test: 35 years on. BJU Int. 105(1):94-100, 2010
                                      10. Semins MJ et al: Management of stone disease in pregnancy. Curr Opin Urol. 20(2):174-7, 2010
                                      11. Saad WE et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy: native and transplanted kidneys. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 12(3):172-92, 2009
                                      12. Stecker MS et al: Guidelines for patient radiation dose management. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 20(7 Suppl):S263-73, 2009
                                      13. Ustunsoz B et al: Percutaneous management of ureteral injuries that are diagnosed late after cesarean section. Korean J Radiol. 9(4):348-53, 2008
                                      14. Hausegger KA et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique-indications-complications. Eur Radiol. 16(9):2016-30, 2006
                                      15. Al-Awadi K et al: Iatrogenic ureteric injuries: incidence, aetiological factors and the effect of early management on subsequent outcome. Int Urol Nephrol. 37(2):235-41, 2005
                                      16. Khoo L et al: Success and short-term complication rates of percutaneous nephrostomy during pregnancy. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 15(12):1469-73, 2004
                                      17. Dyer RB et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy with extensions of the technique: step by step. Radiographics. 22(3):503-25, 2002
                                      18. Zagoria RJ et al: Do's and don't's of percutaneous nephrostomy. Acad Radiol. 6(6):370-7, 1999
                                      19. Lee MJ et al: Fluoroscopically guided percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy for long-term bladder drainage: an alternative to surgical cystostomy. Radiology. 188(3):787-9, 1993
                                      20. Papanicolaou N et al: Percutaneous, large-bore, suprapubic cystostomy: technique and results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 152(2):303-6, 1989
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Preprocedure

                                        • Procedure

                                          • Post Procedure

                                            • Outcomes

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheter: Percutaneous catheter in renal collecting system for external drainage
                                                • Percutaneous nephroureteral (PCNU) catheter: Percutaneous catheter in renal collecting system that extends through ureter into bladder for internal or external drainage
                                                • Antegrade ureteral (double J) stent (AUS): Percutaneous stent extending through ureter from renal pelvis into urinary bladder for internal drainage
                                                • Suprapubic cystostomy (SPT): Percutaneous drainage or Foley catheter entering bladder above pubic symphysis for external drainage
                                                • Whitaker test: Invasive test used to confirm &/or identify urinary obstruction in equivocal cases via pressure measurements obtained from renal collecting system and bladder during antegrade infusion of dilute contrast

                                              PREPROCEDURE

                                              • Indications

                                                • Contraindications

                                                  • Preprocedure Imaging

                                                    • Getting Started

                                                      PROCEDURE

                                                      • Patient Position/Location

                                                        • Procedure Steps

                                                          • Findings and Reporting

                                                            • Alternative Procedures/Therapies

                                                              POST PROCEDURE

                                                              • Things to Do

                                                                • Things to Avoid

                                                                  • Postprocedure Imaging

                                                                    OUTCOMES

                                                                    • Problems

                                                                      • Complications

                                                                        • Expected Outcome

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Basiri A et al: Ultrasound-guided access during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: entering desired calyx with appropriate entry site and angle. Int Braz J Urol. 42(6):1160-1167, 2016
                                                                          2. Hsu L et al: Use of percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting in management of ureteral obstruction. World J Nephrol. 5(2):172-81, 2016
                                                                          3. Pabon-Ramos WM et al: Quality improvement guidelines for percutaneous nephrostomy. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 27(3):410-4, 2016
                                                                          4. Burks FN et al: Management of iatrogenic ureteral injury. Ther Adv Urol. 6(3):115-24, 2014
                                                                          5. Kumar S et al: Efficacy and outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with calculus nephropathy. Urol Res. 39(2):111-5, 2011
                                                                          6. Montvilas P et al: Single-centre review of radiologically guided percutaneous nephrostomy using "mixed" technique: success and complication rates. Eur J Radiol. 80(2):553-8, 2011
                                                                          7. Veenboer PW et al: Antegrade pressure measurement as a diagnostic tool in modern pediatric urology. World J Urol. 29(6):737-41, 2011
                                                                          8. Barnacle AM et al: Nephro-urology interventions in children. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 13(4):229-37, 2010
                                                                          9. Lupton EW et al: The Whitaker test: 35 years on. BJU Int. 105(1):94-100, 2010
                                                                          10. Semins MJ et al: Management of stone disease in pregnancy. Curr Opin Urol. 20(2):174-7, 2010
                                                                          11. Saad WE et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy: native and transplanted kidneys. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 12(3):172-92, 2009
                                                                          12. Stecker MS et al: Guidelines for patient radiation dose management. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 20(7 Suppl):S263-73, 2009
                                                                          13. Ustunsoz B et al: Percutaneous management of ureteral injuries that are diagnosed late after cesarean section. Korean J Radiol. 9(4):348-53, 2008
                                                                          14. Hausegger KA et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique-indications-complications. Eur Radiol. 16(9):2016-30, 2006
                                                                          15. Al-Awadi K et al: Iatrogenic ureteric injuries: incidence, aetiological factors and the effect of early management on subsequent outcome. Int Urol Nephrol. 37(2):235-41, 2005
                                                                          16. Khoo L et al: Success and short-term complication rates of percutaneous nephrostomy during pregnancy. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 15(12):1469-73, 2004
                                                                          17. Dyer RB et al: Percutaneous nephrostomy with extensions of the technique: step by step. Radiographics. 22(3):503-25, 2002
                                                                          18. Zagoria RJ et al: Do's and don't's of percutaneous nephrostomy. Acad Radiol. 6(6):370-7, 1999
                                                                          19. Lee MJ et al: Fluoroscopically guided percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy for long-term bladder drainage: an alternative to surgical cystostomy. Radiology. 188(3):787-9, 1993
                                                                          20. Papanicolaou N et al: Percutaneous, large-bore, suprapubic cystostomy: technique and results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 152(2):303-6, 1989