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Germ Cell Tumors
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
          • Synonyms

            • Teratoma, seminoma, nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT)
          • Definitions

            • Tumor derived from primordial germ cells
            • Teratoma: 3 major types
              • Mature teratoma: Characterized by mixture of adult-type tissues derived from 3 germinal layers
              • Immature teratoma: Contains embryonic or fetal tissue, often neuroepithelial structures
              • Malignant teratoma: Contains foci of malignant transformation
            • Malignant GCT: Seminoma & NSGCT
              • Seminoma: Germinoma & dysgerminoma
              • NSGCT: Embryonal cell, yolk sac tumor (YST), choriocarcinoma, & mixed GCT

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Olson TA et al: Pediatric and adolescent extracranial germ cell tumors: the road to collaboration. J Clin Oncol. 33(27):3018-28, 2015
                                        2. Peterson CM et al: Teratomas: a multimodality review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 41(6):210-9, 2012
                                        3. Petroze R et al: Pediatric chest II: Benign tumors and cysts. Surg Clin North Am. 92(3):645-58, ix, 2012
                                        4. Horton Z et al: Pediatric germ cell tumors. Surg Oncol. 16(3):205-13, 2007
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Teratoma, seminoma, nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Tumor derived from primordial germ cells
                                                  • Teratoma: 3 major types
                                                    • Mature teratoma: Characterized by mixture of adult-type tissues derived from 3 germinal layers
                                                    • Immature teratoma: Contains embryonic or fetal tissue, often neuroepithelial structures
                                                    • Malignant teratoma: Contains foci of malignant transformation
                                                  • Malignant GCT: Seminoma & NSGCT
                                                    • Seminoma: Germinoma & dysgerminoma
                                                    • NSGCT: Embryonal cell, yolk sac tumor (YST), choriocarcinoma, & mixed GCT

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Olson TA et al: Pediatric and adolescent extracranial germ cell tumors: the road to collaboration. J Clin Oncol. 33(27):3018-28, 2015
                                                                              2. Peterson CM et al: Teratomas: a multimodality review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 41(6):210-9, 2012
                                                                              3. Petroze R et al: Pediatric chest II: Benign tumors and cysts. Surg Clin North Am. 92(3):645-58, ix, 2012
                                                                              4. Horton Z et al: Pediatric germ cell tumors. Surg Oncol. 16(3):205-13, 2007