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Germ Cell Tumors
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Teratoma, seminoma, nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT)
          • Definitions

            • Germ cell tumor (GCT): Tumor derived from primordial germ cells
            • Teratoma: 3 major types
              • Mature teratoma: Characterized by mixture of adult-type tissues derived from 3 germinal layers
              • Immature teratoma: Contains embryonic or fetal tissue, often neuroepithelial structures
              • Malignant teratoma: Contains foci of malignant transformation
            • Malignant GCT: Seminoma & NSGCT
              • Seminoma: Germinoma & dysgerminoma
              • NSGCT: Embryonal cell, yolk sac tumor (YST), choriocarcinoma, & mixed GCT

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Biko DM et al: Mediastinal masses in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 41(4):E1186-207, 2021
                                      2. Gupta K et al: Synchronous solitary calvarial yolk sac tumor metastasis as the initial presentation of mediastinal germ cell tumor. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(2):363-6, 2018
                                      3. Kawaguchi Y et al: Prediction of respiratory collapse among pediatric patients with mediastinal tumors during induction of general anesthesia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(7):1365-8, 2018
                                      4. Grabski DF et al: Long-term outcomes of pediatric and adolescent mediastinal germ cell tumors: a single pediatric oncology institutional experience. Pediatr Surg Int. 33(2):235-44, 2017
                                      5. Sudour-Bonnange H et al: Primary mediastinal and retroperitoneal malignant germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the TGM95 trial, a study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology (Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 64(9), 2017
                                      6. Dechaphunkul A et al: Clinical Characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumors: 10-years' experience at a single institution with a bleomycin-containing regimen. Oncol Res Treat. 39(11):688-94, 2016
                                      7. Olson TA et al: Pediatric and adolescent extracranial germ cell tumors: the road to collaboration. J Clin Oncol. 33(27):3018-28, 2015
                                      8. Peterson CM et al: Teratomas: a multimodality review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 41(6):210-9, 2012
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Teratoma, seminoma, nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Germ cell tumor (GCT): Tumor derived from primordial germ cells
                                                • Teratoma: 3 major types
                                                  • Mature teratoma: Characterized by mixture of adult-type tissues derived from 3 germinal layers
                                                  • Immature teratoma: Contains embryonic or fetal tissue, often neuroepithelial structures
                                                  • Malignant teratoma: Contains foci of malignant transformation
                                                • Malignant GCT: Seminoma & NSGCT
                                                  • Seminoma: Germinoma & dysgerminoma
                                                  • NSGCT: Embryonal cell, yolk sac tumor (YST), choriocarcinoma, & mixed GCT

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Biko DM et al: Mediastinal masses in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 41(4):E1186-207, 2021
                                                                          2. Gupta K et al: Synchronous solitary calvarial yolk sac tumor metastasis as the initial presentation of mediastinal germ cell tumor. Childs Nerv Syst. 34(2):363-6, 2018
                                                                          3. Kawaguchi Y et al: Prediction of respiratory collapse among pediatric patients with mediastinal tumors during induction of general anesthesia. J Pediatr Surg. 53(7):1365-8, 2018
                                                                          4. Grabski DF et al: Long-term outcomes of pediatric and adolescent mediastinal germ cell tumors: a single pediatric oncology institutional experience. Pediatr Surg Int. 33(2):235-44, 2017
                                                                          5. Sudour-Bonnange H et al: Primary mediastinal and retroperitoneal malignant germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the TGM95 trial, a study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology (Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 64(9), 2017
                                                                          6. Dechaphunkul A et al: Clinical Characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumors: 10-years' experience at a single institution with a bleomycin-containing regimen. Oncol Res Treat. 39(11):688-94, 2016
                                                                          7. Olson TA et al: Pediatric and adolescent extracranial germ cell tumors: the road to collaboration. J Clin Oncol. 33(27):3018-28, 2015
                                                                          8. Peterson CM et al: Teratomas: a multimodality review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 41(6):210-9, 2012