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Germ Cell Tumors
Mitchell Tublin, MD; Shweta Bhatt, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
          • Mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT)
        • Definitions

          • Malignant germ cell tumor of testis

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Beyer J et al: Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer. Ann Oncol. 24(4):878-88, 2013
                                        2. Kreydin EI et al: Testicular cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):1215-25, 2013
                                        3. Rud CN et al: Sperm concentration, testicular volume and age predict risk of carcinoma in situ in contralateral testis of men with testicular germ cell cancer. J Urol. 190(6):2074-80, 2013
                                        4. McDonald MW et al: Testicular tumor ultrasound characteristics and association with histopathology. Urol Int. 89(2):196-202, 2012
                                        5. Tirman P et al: Sonographic and computed tomographic fusion: imaging features of nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma in transverse testicular ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):657-60, 2012
                                        6. Sohaib SA et al: Imaging studies for germ cell tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 25(3):487-502, vii, 2011
                                        7. Elzinga-Tinke JE et al: The predictive value of testicular ultrasound abnormalities for carcinoma in situ of the testis in men at risk for testicular cancer. Int J Androl. 33(4):597-603, 2010
                                        8. Motzer RJ et al: NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 7(6):672-93, 2009
                                        9. Sohaib SA et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):387-95, 2008
                                        10. Bahrami A et al: An overview of testicular germ cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(8):1267-80, 2007
                                        11. Sohaib SA et al: Surveillance in testicular cancer: who, when, what and how? Cancer Imaging. 7:145-7, 2007
                                        12. Dalal PU et al: Imaging of testicular germ cell tumours. Cancer Imaging. 6:124-34, 2006
                                        13. Kundra V: Testicular cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 39(3):437-50, 2004
                                        14. Schmoll HJ et al: European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol. 15(9):1377-99, 2004
                                        15. Hussain A et al: The unsuspected nonpalpable testicular mass detected by ultrasound: a management problem. Can J Urol. 10(1):1764-6, 2003
                                        16. Huyghe E et al: Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol. 170(1):5-11, 2003
                                        17. Jewett MA et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):819-30, 2003
                                        18. Jones RH et al: New directions in testicular cancer; molecular determinants of oncogenesis and treatment success. Eur J Cancer. 39(2):147-56, 2003
                                        19. Jones RH et al: Part I: testicular cancer--management of early disease. Lancet Oncol. 4(12):730-7, 2003
                                        20. Patel MI et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with seminoma and selected high-risk groups. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):803-17, 2003
                                        21. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
                                                • Mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Malignant germ cell tumor of testis

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Beyer J et al: Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer. Ann Oncol. 24(4):878-88, 2013
                                                                              2. Kreydin EI et al: Testicular cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):1215-25, 2013
                                                                              3. Rud CN et al: Sperm concentration, testicular volume and age predict risk of carcinoma in situ in contralateral testis of men with testicular germ cell cancer. J Urol. 190(6):2074-80, 2013
                                                                              4. McDonald MW et al: Testicular tumor ultrasound characteristics and association with histopathology. Urol Int. 89(2):196-202, 2012
                                                                              5. Tirman P et al: Sonographic and computed tomographic fusion: imaging features of nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma in transverse testicular ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):657-60, 2012
                                                                              6. Sohaib SA et al: Imaging studies for germ cell tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 25(3):487-502, vii, 2011
                                                                              7. Elzinga-Tinke JE et al: The predictive value of testicular ultrasound abnormalities for carcinoma in situ of the testis in men at risk for testicular cancer. Int J Androl. 33(4):597-603, 2010
                                                                              8. Motzer RJ et al: NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 7(6):672-93, 2009
                                                                              9. Sohaib SA et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):387-95, 2008
                                                                              10. Bahrami A et al: An overview of testicular germ cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(8):1267-80, 2007
                                                                              11. Sohaib SA et al: Surveillance in testicular cancer: who, when, what and how? Cancer Imaging. 7:145-7, 2007
                                                                              12. Dalal PU et al: Imaging of testicular germ cell tumours. Cancer Imaging. 6:124-34, 2006
                                                                              13. Kundra V: Testicular cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 39(3):437-50, 2004
                                                                              14. Schmoll HJ et al: European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol. 15(9):1377-99, 2004
                                                                              15. Hussain A et al: The unsuspected nonpalpable testicular mass detected by ultrasound: a management problem. Can J Urol. 10(1):1764-6, 2003
                                                                              16. Huyghe E et al: Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol. 170(1):5-11, 2003
                                                                              17. Jewett MA et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):819-30, 2003
                                                                              18. Jones RH et al: New directions in testicular cancer; molecular determinants of oncogenesis and treatment success. Eur J Cancer. 39(2):147-56, 2003
                                                                              19. Jones RH et al: Part I: testicular cancer--management of early disease. Lancet Oncol. 4(12):730-7, 2003
                                                                              20. Patel MI et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with seminoma and selected high-risk groups. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):803-17, 2003
                                                                              21. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002