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Germ Cell Tumors
Kyle K. Jensen, MD; Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
            • Nonseminomatous GCT (NSGCT)
          • Definitions

            • Malignant GCT of testis
              • Histologically divided into seminoma and NSGCT

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Cheriyan SK et al: Current management and management controversies in early- and intermediate-stage of nonseminoma germ cell tumors. Transl Androl Urol. 9(Suppl 1):S45-55, 2020
                                          2. Sharbidre KG et al: Imaging of scrotal masses. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(7):2087-108, 2020
                                          3. Wood MJ et al: Imaging of metastatic germ cell tumors in male patients from initial diagnosis to treatment-related toxicities: a primer for radiologists. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(1):24-33, 2020
                                          4. Marshall C et al: Serum tumor markers and testicular germ cell tumors: a primer for radiologists. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1083-90, 2019
                                          5. Thomas LJ et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, response to treatment, and surveillance of patients with germ cell tumors of the testis. Urol Clin North Am. 46(3):315-31, 2019
                                          6. Tsili AC et al: MRI of testicular malignancies. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1070-82, 2019
                                          7. Marko J et al: Testicular seminoma and its mimics: from the radiologic pathology archives. Radiographics. 37(4):1085-98, 2017
                                          8. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                          9. Beyer J et al: Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer. Ann Oncol. 24(4):878-88, 2013
                                          10. Kreydin EI et al: Testicular cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):1215-25, 2013
                                          11. Rud CN et al: Sperm concentration, testicular volume and age predict risk of carcinoma in situ in contralateral testis of men with testicular germ cell cancer. J Urol. 190(6):2074-80, 2013
                                          12. McDonald MW et al: Testicular tumor ultrasound characteristics and association with histopathology. Urol Int. 89(2):196-202, 2012
                                          13. Tirman P et al: Sonographic and computed tomographic fusion: imaging features of nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma in transverse testicular ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):657-60, 2012
                                          14. Sohaib SA et al: Imaging studies for germ cell tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 25(3):487-502, vii, 2011
                                          15. Elzinga-Tinke JE et al: The predictive value of testicular ultrasound abnormalities for carcinoma in situ of the testis in men at risk for testicular cancer. Int J Androl. 33(4):597-603, 2010
                                          16. Motzer RJ et al: NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 7(6):672-93, 2009
                                          17. Sohaib SA et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):387-95, 2008
                                          18. Bahrami A et al: An overview of testicular germ cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(8):1267-80, 2007
                                          19. Sohaib SA et al: Surveillance in testicular cancer: who, when, what and how? Cancer Imaging. 7:145-7, 2007
                                          20. Dalal PU et al: Imaging of testicular germ cell tumours. Cancer Imaging. 6:124-34, 2006
                                          21. Kundra V: Testicular cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 39(3):437-50, 2004
                                          22. Schmoll HJ et al: European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol. 15(9):1377-99, 2004
                                          23. Hussain A et al: The unsuspected nonpalpable testicular mass detected by ultrasound: a management problem. Can J Urol. 10(1):1764-6, 2003
                                          24. Huyghe E et al: Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol. 170(1):5-11, 2003
                                          25. Jewett MA et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):819-30, 2003
                                          26. Jones RH et al: New directions in testicular cancer; molecular determinants of oncogenesis and treatment success. Eur J Cancer. 39(2):147-56, 2003
                                          27. Jones RH et al: Part I: testicular cancer--management of early disease. Lancet Oncol. 4(12):730-7, 2003
                                          28. Patel MI et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with seminoma and selected high-risk groups. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):803-17, 2003
                                          29. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Germ cell tumor (GCT)
                                                    • Nonseminomatous GCT (NSGCT)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Malignant GCT of testis
                                                      • Histologically divided into seminoma and NSGCT

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Cheriyan SK et al: Current management and management controversies in early- and intermediate-stage of nonseminoma germ cell tumors. Transl Androl Urol. 9(Suppl 1):S45-55, 2020
                                                                                  2. Sharbidre KG et al: Imaging of scrotal masses. Abdom Radiol (NY). 45(7):2087-108, 2020
                                                                                  3. Wood MJ et al: Imaging of metastatic germ cell tumors in male patients from initial diagnosis to treatment-related toxicities: a primer for radiologists. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(1):24-33, 2020
                                                                                  4. Marshall C et al: Serum tumor markers and testicular germ cell tumors: a primer for radiologists. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1083-90, 2019
                                                                                  5. Thomas LJ et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, response to treatment, and surveillance of patients with germ cell tumors of the testis. Urol Clin North Am. 46(3):315-31, 2019
                                                                                  6. Tsili AC et al: MRI of testicular malignancies. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1070-82, 2019
                                                                                  7. Marko J et al: Testicular seminoma and its mimics: from the radiologic pathology archives. Radiographics. 37(4):1085-98, 2017
                                                                                  8. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                                                                  9. Beyer J et al: Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer. Ann Oncol. 24(4):878-88, 2013
                                                                                  10. Kreydin EI et al: Testicular cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):1215-25, 2013
                                                                                  11. Rud CN et al: Sperm concentration, testicular volume and age predict risk of carcinoma in situ in contralateral testis of men with testicular germ cell cancer. J Urol. 190(6):2074-80, 2013
                                                                                  12. McDonald MW et al: Testicular tumor ultrasound characteristics and association with histopathology. Urol Int. 89(2):196-202, 2012
                                                                                  13. Tirman P et al: Sonographic and computed tomographic fusion: imaging features of nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma in transverse testicular ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 31(4):657-60, 2012
                                                                                  14. Sohaib SA et al: Imaging studies for germ cell tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 25(3):487-502, vii, 2011
                                                                                  15. Elzinga-Tinke JE et al: The predictive value of testicular ultrasound abnormalities for carcinoma in situ of the testis in men at risk for testicular cancer. Int J Androl. 33(4):597-603, 2010
                                                                                  16. Motzer RJ et al: NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 7(6):672-93, 2009
                                                                                  17. Sohaib SA et al: The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(2):387-95, 2008
                                                                                  18. Bahrami A et al: An overview of testicular germ cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 131(8):1267-80, 2007
                                                                                  19. Sohaib SA et al: Surveillance in testicular cancer: who, when, what and how? Cancer Imaging. 7:145-7, 2007
                                                                                  20. Dalal PU et al: Imaging of testicular germ cell tumours. Cancer Imaging. 6:124-34, 2006
                                                                                  21. Kundra V: Testicular cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 39(3):437-50, 2004
                                                                                  22. Schmoll HJ et al: European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol. 15(9):1377-99, 2004
                                                                                  23. Hussain A et al: The unsuspected nonpalpable testicular mass detected by ultrasound: a management problem. Can J Urol. 10(1):1764-6, 2003
                                                                                  24. Huyghe E et al: Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol. 170(1):5-11, 2003
                                                                                  25. Jewett MA et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):819-30, 2003
                                                                                  26. Jones RH et al: New directions in testicular cancer; molecular determinants of oncogenesis and treatment success. Eur J Cancer. 39(2):147-56, 2003
                                                                                  27. Jones RH et al: Part I: testicular cancer--management of early disease. Lancet Oncol. 4(12):730-7, 2003
                                                                                  28. Patel MI et al: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with seminoma and selected high-risk groups. Urol Clin North Am. 30(4):803-17, 2003
                                                                                  29. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002