link
Bookmarks
Germinoma
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
16
6
6

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Intracranial germ cell tumor (iGCT)
            • Synonyms

              • Dysgerminoma, extragonadal seminoma
            • Definitions

              • iGCTs are intracranial homologue of gonadal germinomas (ovarian dysgerminoma, testicular seminoma)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                • Genetics

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Bhimani AD et al: Pituitary germinomas: a multi-institutional study analyzing patient demographics and management patterns. Pituitary. 23(4):381-8, 2020
                                              2. Pal R et al: Intracranial germinoma masquerading as secondary granulomatous hypophysitis: a case report and review of literature. neuroendocrinology. 110(5):422-9, 2020
                                              3. Takami H et al: Epidemiology, natural history, and optimal management of neurohypophyseal germ cell tumors. J Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                              4. Takami H et al: Novel diagnostic methods and posttreatment clinical phenotypes among intracranial germ cell tumors. Neurosurgery. ePub, 2020
                                              5. Takami H et al: Comparison on epidemiology, tumor location, histology, and prognosis of intracranial germ cell tumors between Mayo Clinic and Japanese consortium cohorts. J Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                              6. Lo AC et al: Intracranial germ cell tumors in adolescents and young adults: a 40-year multi-institutional review of outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 106(2):269-78, 2019
                                              7. Takami H et al: Integrated clinical, histopathological, and molecular data analysis of 190 central nervous system germ cell tumors from the iGCT Consortium. Neuro Oncol. 21(12):1565-77, 2019
                                              8. Chen R et al: Fast-developing fatal diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination of a pineal germinoma in a young child: a case report and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. ePub, 2018
                                              9. Duron L et al: Loco-regional extensions of central nervous system germ cell tumors: a retrospective radiological analysis of 100 patients. Neuroradiology. 60(1):27-34, 2018
                                              10. Kong Z et al: Central nervous system germ cell tumors: a review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 33(9):610-20, 2018
                                              11. Starnoni D et al: Pineal granuloma masking a germinoma: do not hesitate to repeat the biopsy. J Neurosurg Sci. 62(2):228-9, 2018
                                              12. Zapka P et al: Type, frequency, and spatial distribution of immune cell infiltrates in cns germinomas: evidence for inflammatory and immunosuppressive mechanisms. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 77(2):119-27, 2018
                                              13. Fukushima S et al: Genome-wide methylation profiles in primary intracranial germ cell tumors indicate a primordial germ cell origin for germinomas. Acta Neuropathol. 133(3):445-62, 2017
                                              14. Wu CC et al: MRI features of pediatric intracranial germ cell tumor subtypes. J Neurooncol. 134(1):221-30, 2017
                                              15. Yoneoka Y et al: Perifocal inflammatory reaction with volume fluctuation caused by diagnostic radiation-induced regression in germinoma makes histological diagnosis difficult despite its disappearance following treatment: a significant pitfall and countermeasures to it. Pediatr Neurosurg. 52(2):87-92, 2017
                                              16. Zhang H et al: Bifocal germinomas in the pineal region and hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis: Primary or metastasis? J Clin Neurosci. 34:151-7, 2016
                                              Related Anatomy
                                              Loading...
                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
                                              Loading...
                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Intracranial germ cell tumor (iGCT)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Dysgerminoma, extragonadal seminoma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • iGCTs are intracranial homologue of gonadal germinomas (ovarian dysgerminoma, testicular seminoma)

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            • Genetics

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Bhimani AD et al: Pituitary germinomas: a multi-institutional study analyzing patient demographics and management patterns. Pituitary. 23(4):381-8, 2020
                                                                                          2. Pal R et al: Intracranial germinoma masquerading as secondary granulomatous hypophysitis: a case report and review of literature. neuroendocrinology. 110(5):422-9, 2020
                                                                                          3. Takami H et al: Epidemiology, natural history, and optimal management of neurohypophyseal germ cell tumors. J Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                                                                          4. Takami H et al: Novel diagnostic methods and posttreatment clinical phenotypes among intracranial germ cell tumors. Neurosurgery. ePub, 2020
                                                                                          5. Takami H et al: Comparison on epidemiology, tumor location, histology, and prognosis of intracranial germ cell tumors between Mayo Clinic and Japanese consortium cohorts. J Neurosurg. ePub, 2020
                                                                                          6. Lo AC et al: Intracranial germ cell tumors in adolescents and young adults: a 40-year multi-institutional review of outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 106(2):269-78, 2019
                                                                                          7. Takami H et al: Integrated clinical, histopathological, and molecular data analysis of 190 central nervous system germ cell tumors from the iGCT Consortium. Neuro Oncol. 21(12):1565-77, 2019
                                                                                          8. Chen R et al: Fast-developing fatal diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination of a pineal germinoma in a young child: a case report and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. ePub, 2018
                                                                                          9. Duron L et al: Loco-regional extensions of central nervous system germ cell tumors: a retrospective radiological analysis of 100 patients. Neuroradiology. 60(1):27-34, 2018
                                                                                          10. Kong Z et al: Central nervous system germ cell tumors: a review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 33(9):610-20, 2018
                                                                                          11. Starnoni D et al: Pineal granuloma masking a germinoma: do not hesitate to repeat the biopsy. J Neurosurg Sci. 62(2):228-9, 2018
                                                                                          12. Zapka P et al: Type, frequency, and spatial distribution of immune cell infiltrates in cns germinomas: evidence for inflammatory and immunosuppressive mechanisms. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 77(2):119-27, 2018
                                                                                          13. Fukushima S et al: Genome-wide methylation profiles in primary intracranial germ cell tumors indicate a primordial germ cell origin for germinomas. Acta Neuropathol. 133(3):445-62, 2017
                                                                                          14. Wu CC et al: MRI features of pediatric intracranial germ cell tumor subtypes. J Neurooncol. 134(1):221-30, 2017
                                                                                          15. Yoneoka Y et al: Perifocal inflammatory reaction with volume fluctuation caused by diagnostic radiation-induced regression in germinoma makes histological diagnosis difficult despite its disappearance following treatment: a significant pitfall and countermeasures to it. Pediatr Neurosurg. 52(2):87-92, 2017
                                                                                          16. Zhang H et al: Bifocal germinomas in the pineal region and hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis: Primary or metastasis? J Clin Neurosci. 34:151-7, 2016