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Germinoma
Luke L. Linscott, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Tumor of primordial germ cells, essentially identical to gonadal or extragonadal seminoma & dysgerminoma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Juliano J et al: Imaging features predictive of recurrence in pediatric intracranial germ-cell tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1-8, 2019
                                            2. Wu CC et al: MRI features of pediatric intracranial germ cell tumor subtypes. J Neurooncol. 134(1):221-30, 2017
                                            3. Choudhri AF et al: Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors. Neuroradiol J. 28(2):209-16, 2015
                                            4. Ogiwara H et al: Apparent diffusion coefficient of intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol. 121(3):565-71, 2015
                                            5. Osorio DS et al: Management of CNS germinoma. CNS Oncol. 4(4):273-9, 2015
                                            6. Awa R et al: Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors-quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma. Neuroradiology. 56(7):525-34, 2014
                                            7. Kakigi T et al: Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful? Neuroradiology. 56(4):297-303, 2014
                                            8. Plaza MJ et al: Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: posterior fossa and suprasellar tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(5):1115-24, 2013
                                            9. Shim KW et al: Treatment strategy for intracranial primary pure germinoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 29(2):239-48, 2013
                                            10. Chen YW et al: Change in treatment strategy for intracranial germinoma: long-term follow-up experience at a single institute. Cancer. 118(10):2752-62, 2012
                                            11. Dumrongpisutikul N et al: Distinguishing between germinomas and pineal cell tumors on MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(3):550-5, 2012
                                            12. Kreutz J et al: Intracranial germ cell tumor. JBR-BTR. 93(4):196-7, 2010
                                            13. Wang Y et al: Intracranial germinoma: clinical and MRI findings in 56 patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(12):1773-7, 2010
                                            14. Kanamori M et al: Optimal treatment strategy for intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(6):506-14, 2009
                                            15. Tian C et al: Is biopsy needed to guide management for all patients with presumed intracranial ectopic germinomas. J Neurooncol. 92(1):37-44, 2009
                                            16. Ogino H et al: CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 62(3):803-8, 2005
                                            17. Wellons JC 3rd et al: Neuroendoscopic findings in patients with intracranial germinomas correlating with diabetes insipidus. J Neurosurg Spine. 100(5):430-6, 2004
                                            18. Gömöri E et al: Cytogenetic profile of primary pituitary germinoma. J Neurooncol. 50(3):251-5, 2000
                                            19. Sano K: Pathogenesis of intracranial germ cell tumors reconsidered. J Neurosurg. 90(2):258-64, 1999
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Tumor of primordial germ cells, essentially identical to gonadal or extragonadal seminoma & dysgerminoma

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Juliano J et al: Imaging features predictive of recurrence in pediatric intracranial germ-cell tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1-8, 2019
                                                                                      2. Wu CC et al: MRI features of pediatric intracranial germ cell tumor subtypes. J Neurooncol. 134(1):221-30, 2017
                                                                                      3. Choudhri AF et al: Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors. Neuroradiol J. 28(2):209-16, 2015
                                                                                      4. Ogiwara H et al: Apparent diffusion coefficient of intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol. 121(3):565-71, 2015
                                                                                      5. Osorio DS et al: Management of CNS germinoma. CNS Oncol. 4(4):273-9, 2015
                                                                                      6. Awa R et al: Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors-quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma. Neuroradiology. 56(7):525-34, 2014
                                                                                      7. Kakigi T et al: Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful? Neuroradiology. 56(4):297-303, 2014
                                                                                      8. Plaza MJ et al: Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: posterior fossa and suprasellar tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(5):1115-24, 2013
                                                                                      9. Shim KW et al: Treatment strategy for intracranial primary pure germinoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 29(2):239-48, 2013
                                                                                      10. Chen YW et al: Change in treatment strategy for intracranial germinoma: long-term follow-up experience at a single institute. Cancer. 118(10):2752-62, 2012
                                                                                      11. Dumrongpisutikul N et al: Distinguishing between germinomas and pineal cell tumors on MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(3):550-5, 2012
                                                                                      12. Kreutz J et al: Intracranial germ cell tumor. JBR-BTR. 93(4):196-7, 2010
                                                                                      13. Wang Y et al: Intracranial germinoma: clinical and MRI findings in 56 patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(12):1773-7, 2010
                                                                                      14. Kanamori M et al: Optimal treatment strategy for intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(6):506-14, 2009
                                                                                      15. Tian C et al: Is biopsy needed to guide management for all patients with presumed intracranial ectopic germinomas. J Neurooncol. 92(1):37-44, 2009
                                                                                      16. Ogino H et al: CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 62(3):803-8, 2005
                                                                                      17. Wellons JC 3rd et al: Neuroendoscopic findings in patients with intracranial germinomas correlating with diabetes insipidus. J Neurosurg Spine. 100(5):430-6, 2004
                                                                                      18. Gömöri E et al: Cytogenetic profile of primary pituitary germinoma. J Neurooncol. 50(3):251-5, 2000
                                                                                      19. Sano K: Pathogenesis of intracranial germ cell tumors reconsidered. J Neurosurg. 90(2):258-64, 1999