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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Priya Menon Krishnarao, MD; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)
          • Synonyms

            • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
            • Molar pregnancy
          • Definitions

            • Abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue
            • GTD subtypes
              • Hydatidiform moles
                • Partial hydatidiform mole (triploidy)
                • Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM)
              • Malignant GTD
                • Invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens)
                • Choriocarcinoma
                • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Lane BF et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® first trimester bleeding. Ultrasound Q. 29(2):91-6, 2013
                                          2. Kohorn EI: Imaging practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease: an assessment. J Reprod Med. 57(5-6):207-10, 2012
                                          3. Emoto M et al: Clinical usefulness of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography in invasive and noninvasive gestational trophoblastic diseases: a preliminary study. J Reprod Med. 56(5-6):224-34, 2011
                                          4. Lurain JR: Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203(6):531-9, 2010
                                          5. Alhamdan D et al: Recognising gestational trophoblastic disease. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 23(4):565-73, 2009
                                          6. Betel C et al: Sonographic diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and comparison with retained products of conception. J Ultrasound Med. 25(8):985-93, 2006
                                          7. Brandt KR et al: MR appearance of placental site trophoblastic tumor: a report of three cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(2):485-7, 1998
                                          8. Kaiser-Rogers KA et al: Androgenetic/biparental mosaicism causes placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Med Genet. 43(2):187-92, 2006
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
                                                    • Molar pregnancy
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue
                                                    • GTD subtypes
                                                      • Hydatidiform moles
                                                        • Partial hydatidiform mole (triploidy)
                                                        • Complete hydatidiform mole (CHM)
                                                      • Malignant GTD
                                                        • Invasive mole (chorioadenoma destruens)
                                                        • Choriocarcinoma
                                                        • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT)

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Lane BF et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® first trimester bleeding. Ultrasound Q. 29(2):91-6, 2013
                                                                                  2. Kohorn EI: Imaging practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease: an assessment. J Reprod Med. 57(5-6):207-10, 2012
                                                                                  3. Emoto M et al: Clinical usefulness of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography in invasive and noninvasive gestational trophoblastic diseases: a preliminary study. J Reprod Med. 56(5-6):224-34, 2011
                                                                                  4. Lurain JR: Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203(6):531-9, 2010
                                                                                  5. Alhamdan D et al: Recognising gestational trophoblastic disease. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 23(4):565-73, 2009
                                                                                  6. Betel C et al: Sonographic diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and comparison with retained products of conception. J Ultrasound Med. 25(8):985-93, 2006
                                                                                  7. Brandt KR et al: MR appearance of placental site trophoblastic tumor: a report of three cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 170(2):485-7, 1998
                                                                                  8. Kaiser-Rogers KA et al: Androgenetic/biparental mosaicism causes placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Med Genet. 43(2):187-92, 2006