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Giant Cell Tumor
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Giant cell tumor (GCT)
            • Definitions

              • Locally aggressive neoplasm composed of osteoclast-like giant cells

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Chakarun CJ et al: Giant cell tumor of bone: review, mimics, and new developments in treatment. Radiographics. 33(1):197-211, 2013
                                            2. Raskin KA et al: Giant cell tumor of bone. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 21(2):118-26, 2013
                                            3. Boriani S et al: Giant cell tumor of the mobile spine: a review of 49 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(1):E37-45, 2012
                                            4. Branstetter DG et al: Denosumab induces tumor reduction and bone formation in patients with giant-cell tumor of bone. Clin Cancer Res. 18(16):4415-24, 2012
                                            5. Zbojniewicz AM et al: Neoplastic disease of the vertebral column: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 39(2):74-90, 2010
                                            6. Gerber S et al: Imaging of sacral tumours. Skeletal Radiol. 37(4):277-89, 2008
                                            7. Luther N et al: Giant cell tumor of the spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 19(1):49-55, 2008
                                            8. Kwon JW et al: MRI findings of giant cell tumors of the spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):246-50, 2007
                                            9. Bertoni F et al: Malignancy in giant cell tumor of bone. Cancer. 97(10):2520-9, 2003
                                            10. Garcia-Bravo A et al: Secondary tetraplegia due to giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine. Neurochirurgie. 48(6):527-32, 2002
                                            11. Lackman RD et al: The treatment of sacral giant-cell tumours by serial arterial embolisation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 84(6):873-7, 2002
                                            12. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of AFIP. Imaging of giant cell tumor and giant cell reparative granuloma of bone: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 21(5):1283-309, 2001
                                            13. Manaster BJ et al: Giant cell tumors of bone. Radiol Clin North Am. 31(2):299-323, 1993
                                            14. Schütte HE et al: Giant cell tumor in children and adolescents. Skeletal Radiol. 22(3):173-6, 1993
                                            15. Tubbs WS et al: Benign giant-cell tumor of bone with pulmonary metastases: clinical findings and radiologic appearance of metastases in 13 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 158(2):331-4, 1992
                                            16. Aoki J et al: Giant cell tumors of bone containing large amounts of hemosiderin: MR-pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 15(6):1024-7, 1991
                                            17. Bridge JA et al: Cytogenetic findings and biologic behavior of giant cell tumors of bone. Cancer. 65(12):2697-703, 1990
                                            18. Carrasco CH et al: Giant cell tumors. Orthop Clin North Am. 20(3):395-405, 1989
                                            19. Meis JM et al: Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: "dedifferentiated" giant cell tumor. Mod Pathol. 2(5):541-6, 1989
                                            20. Mirra JM et al: Bone tumors: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic correlations. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Feibiger. 942-1019, 1989
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Giant cell tumor (GCT)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Locally aggressive neoplasm composed of osteoclast-like giant cells

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Chakarun CJ et al: Giant cell tumor of bone: review, mimics, and new developments in treatment. Radiographics. 33(1):197-211, 2013
                                                                                      2. Raskin KA et al: Giant cell tumor of bone. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 21(2):118-26, 2013
                                                                                      3. Boriani S et al: Giant cell tumor of the mobile spine: a review of 49 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 37(1):E37-45, 2012
                                                                                      4. Branstetter DG et al: Denosumab induces tumor reduction and bone formation in patients with giant-cell tumor of bone. Clin Cancer Res. 18(16):4415-24, 2012
                                                                                      5. Zbojniewicz AM et al: Neoplastic disease of the vertebral column: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 39(2):74-90, 2010
                                                                                      6. Gerber S et al: Imaging of sacral tumours. Skeletal Radiol. 37(4):277-89, 2008
                                                                                      7. Luther N et al: Giant cell tumor of the spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 19(1):49-55, 2008
                                                                                      8. Kwon JW et al: MRI findings of giant cell tumors of the spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 189(1):246-50, 2007
                                                                                      9. Bertoni F et al: Malignancy in giant cell tumor of bone. Cancer. 97(10):2520-9, 2003
                                                                                      10. Garcia-Bravo A et al: Secondary tetraplegia due to giant-cell tumors of the cervical spine. Neurochirurgie. 48(6):527-32, 2002
                                                                                      11. Lackman RD et al: The treatment of sacral giant-cell tumours by serial arterial embolisation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 84(6):873-7, 2002
                                                                                      12. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of AFIP. Imaging of giant cell tumor and giant cell reparative granuloma of bone: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 21(5):1283-309, 2001
                                                                                      13. Manaster BJ et al: Giant cell tumors of bone. Radiol Clin North Am. 31(2):299-323, 1993
                                                                                      14. Schütte HE et al: Giant cell tumor in children and adolescents. Skeletal Radiol. 22(3):173-6, 1993
                                                                                      15. Tubbs WS et al: Benign giant-cell tumor of bone with pulmonary metastases: clinical findings and radiologic appearance of metastases in 13 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 158(2):331-4, 1992
                                                                                      16. Aoki J et al: Giant cell tumors of bone containing large amounts of hemosiderin: MR-pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 15(6):1024-7, 1991
                                                                                      17. Bridge JA et al: Cytogenetic findings and biologic behavior of giant cell tumors of bone. Cancer. 65(12):2697-703, 1990
                                                                                      18. Carrasco CH et al: Giant cell tumors. Orthop Clin North Am. 20(3):395-405, 1989
                                                                                      19. Meis JM et al: Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: "dedifferentiated" giant cell tumor. Mod Pathol. 2(5):541-6, 1989
                                                                                      20. Mirra JM et al: Bone tumors: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic correlations. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Feibiger. 942-1019, 1989