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Glomus Tympanicum Paraganglioma
Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma (GTP)
            • Synonyms

              • Glomus tympanicum; chemodectoma, nonchromaffin paraganglioma
            • Definitions

              • Benign tumor arising from glomus bodies situated on cochlear promontory

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Angiographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Lee SJ et al: Treatment outcomes of patients with glomus tympanicum tumors presenting with pulsatile tinnitus. J Clin Med. 10(11), 2021
                                              2. Cass ND et al: The changing paradigm of head and neck paragangliomas: what every otolaryngologist needs to know. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 129(11):1135-43, 2020
                                              3. Fatima N et al: Stereotactic radiosurgery for head and neck paragangliomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosurg Rev. 44(2):741-52, 2020
                                              4. Kaul VF et al: Nuances in transcanal endoscopic surgical technique for glomus tympanicum tumors. Am J Otolaryngol. 41(5):102562, 2020
                                              5. Javidiparsijani S et al: Is Regional lymph node metastasis of head and neck paraganglioma a sign of aggressive clinical behavior: a clinical/pathologic review. Ear Nose Throat J. 145561319863373, 2019
                                              6. Tokgöz SA et al: Glomus tumors of the head and neck: thirteen years' institutional experience and management. Acta Otolaryngol. 139(10):930-3, 2019
                                              7. Appannan VR et al: Glomus tympanicum. Malays Fam Physician. 13(1):45-8, 2018
                                              8. Killeen DE et al: Endoscopic management of middle ear paragangliomas: a case series. Otol Neurotol. 38(3):408-15, 2017
                                              9. Pollak N et al: Endoscopic excision of a tympanic paraganglioma: training the next generation of ear surgeons. World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 3(3):160-2, 2017
                                              10. Carlson ML et al: Glomus tympanicum: a review of 115 cases over 4 decades. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(1):136-42, 2015
                                              11. Sweeney AD et al: Glomus tympanicum tumors. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):293-304, 2015
                                              12. Kumar G et al: Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: new bone formation in the middle ear. World J Clin Cases. 2(9):463-5, 2014
                                              13. Amin MF et al: Diagnostic efficiency of multidetector computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation of head and neck paragangliomas from other mimicking vascular lesions: comparison with histopathologic examination. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 270(3):1045-53, 2013
                                              14. Chang WT et al: Intraoperative view of a glomus tympanicum. Ear Nose Throat J. 91(12):E25-6, 2012
                                              15. Ibrahimov M et al: Glomus tympanicum: an unusual cause of epistaxis. J Craniofac Surg. 23(4):1224-5, 2012
                                              16. Karatas E et al: Promontory hemangioma mimics glomus tympanicum in the middle ear (promontory hemangioma). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16 Suppl 4:103-5, 2012
                                              17. Papaspyrou K et al: Hearing results after hypotympanotomy for glomus tympanicum tumors. Otol Neurotol. 32(2):291-6, 2011
                                              18. Fowler JC et al: Case of the month. Glomus tympanicum tumor. JAAPA. 23(6):65, 2010
                                              19. Lee CK et al: Images in clinical medicine. Glomus tympanicum. N Engl J Med. 362(22):e66, 2010
                                              20. Alaani A et al: The crucial role of imaging in determining the approach to glomus tympanicum tumours. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 266(6):827-31, 2009
                                              21. Kutz JW Jr et al: Glomus tympanicum. Ear Nose Throat J. 86(6):317, 2007
                                              22. Hirunpat S et al: Nasopharyngeal extension of glomus tympanicum: an unusual clinical and imaging manifestation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(9):1820-2, 2006
                                              23. Braun S et al: Active succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and lack of SDHD mutations in sporadic paragangliomas. Anticancer Res. 25(4):2809-14, 2005
                                              24. van den Berg R: Imaging and management of head and neck paragangliomas. Eur Radiol. 15(7):1310-8, 2005
                                              25. Rohit et al: Glomus tympanicum tumour: an alternative surgical technique. J Laryngol Otol. 117(6):462-6, 2003
                                              26. Forest JA 3rd et al: Long-term control of surgically treated glomus tympanicum tumors. Otol Neurotol. 22(2):232-6, 2001
                                              27. Jackson CG: Glomus tympanicum and glomus jugulare tumors. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 34(5):941-70, vii, 2001
                                              28. Mafee MF et al: Glomus faciale, glomus jugulare, glomus tympanicum, glomus vagale, carotid body tumors, and simulating lesions: role of MRI. Radiol Clin North Am. 38: 1059-76, 2000
                                              29. Noujaim SE et al: Paraganglioma of the temporal bone: role of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 11(2):108-22, 2000
                                              30. Maier W et al: Paraganglioma as a systemic syndrome: pitfalls and strategies. J Laryngol Otol. 113(11):978-82, 1999
                                              31. Rao AB et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Paragangliomas of the head and neck: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Radiographics. 19(6):1605-32, 1999
                                              32. Liscak R et al: Leksell gamma knife radiosurgery of the tumor glomus jugulare and tympanicum. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 70 Suppl 1:152-60, 1998
                                              33. Weissman JL et al: Beyond the promontory: the multifocal origin of glomus tympanicum tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(1):119-22, 1998
                                              34. Alshaikhly A et al: Glomus tympanicum chemodectoma: unusual radiological findings. J Laryngol Otol. 108(7):607-9, 1994
                                              35. Baguley DM et al: Audiological findings in glomus tumours. Br J Audiol. 28(6):291-7, 1994
                                              36. Jacobs IN et al: Glomus tympanicum in infancy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 120(2):203-5, 1994
                                              37. Balatsouras DG et al: Multiple glomus tumours. J Laryngol Otol. 106(6):538-43, 1992
                                              38. O'Leary MJ et al: Glomus tympanicum tumors: a clinical perspective. Laryngoscope. 101(10):1038-43, 1991
                                              39. Larson TC et al: Glomus tympanicum chemodectomas: Radiographic and clinical characteristics. Radiology. 163(3):801-6, 1987
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma (GTP)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Glomus tympanicum; chemodectoma, nonchromaffin paraganglioma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Benign tumor arising from glomus bodies situated on cochlear promontory

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Lee SJ et al: Treatment outcomes of patients with glomus tympanicum tumors presenting with pulsatile tinnitus. J Clin Med. 10(11), 2021
                                                                                          2. Cass ND et al: The changing paradigm of head and neck paragangliomas: what every otolaryngologist needs to know. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 129(11):1135-43, 2020
                                                                                          3. Fatima N et al: Stereotactic radiosurgery for head and neck paragangliomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosurg Rev. 44(2):741-52, 2020
                                                                                          4. Kaul VF et al: Nuances in transcanal endoscopic surgical technique for glomus tympanicum tumors. Am J Otolaryngol. 41(5):102562, 2020
                                                                                          5. Javidiparsijani S et al: Is Regional lymph node metastasis of head and neck paraganglioma a sign of aggressive clinical behavior: a clinical/pathologic review. Ear Nose Throat J. 145561319863373, 2019
                                                                                          6. Tokgöz SA et al: Glomus tumors of the head and neck: thirteen years' institutional experience and management. Acta Otolaryngol. 139(10):930-3, 2019
                                                                                          7. Appannan VR et al: Glomus tympanicum. Malays Fam Physician. 13(1):45-8, 2018
                                                                                          8. Killeen DE et al: Endoscopic management of middle ear paragangliomas: a case series. Otol Neurotol. 38(3):408-15, 2017
                                                                                          9. Pollak N et al: Endoscopic excision of a tympanic paraganglioma: training the next generation of ear surgeons. World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 3(3):160-2, 2017
                                                                                          10. Carlson ML et al: Glomus tympanicum: a review of 115 cases over 4 decades. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 152(1):136-42, 2015
                                                                                          11. Sweeney AD et al: Glomus tympanicum tumors. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):293-304, 2015
                                                                                          12. Kumar G et al: Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: new bone formation in the middle ear. World J Clin Cases. 2(9):463-5, 2014
                                                                                          13. Amin MF et al: Diagnostic efficiency of multidetector computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation of head and neck paragangliomas from other mimicking vascular lesions: comparison with histopathologic examination. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 270(3):1045-53, 2013
                                                                                          14. Chang WT et al: Intraoperative view of a glomus tympanicum. Ear Nose Throat J. 91(12):E25-6, 2012
                                                                                          15. Ibrahimov M et al: Glomus tympanicum: an unusual cause of epistaxis. J Craniofac Surg. 23(4):1224-5, 2012
                                                                                          16. Karatas E et al: Promontory hemangioma mimics glomus tympanicum in the middle ear (promontory hemangioma). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16 Suppl 4:103-5, 2012
                                                                                          17. Papaspyrou K et al: Hearing results after hypotympanotomy for glomus tympanicum tumors. Otol Neurotol. 32(2):291-6, 2011
                                                                                          18. Fowler JC et al: Case of the month. Glomus tympanicum tumor. JAAPA. 23(6):65, 2010
                                                                                          19. Lee CK et al: Images in clinical medicine. Glomus tympanicum. N Engl J Med. 362(22):e66, 2010
                                                                                          20. Alaani A et al: The crucial role of imaging in determining the approach to glomus tympanicum tumours. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 266(6):827-31, 2009
                                                                                          21. Kutz JW Jr et al: Glomus tympanicum. Ear Nose Throat J. 86(6):317, 2007
                                                                                          22. Hirunpat S et al: Nasopharyngeal extension of glomus tympanicum: an unusual clinical and imaging manifestation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(9):1820-2, 2006
                                                                                          23. Braun S et al: Active succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and lack of SDHD mutations in sporadic paragangliomas. Anticancer Res. 25(4):2809-14, 2005
                                                                                          24. van den Berg R: Imaging and management of head and neck paragangliomas. Eur Radiol. 15(7):1310-8, 2005
                                                                                          25. Rohit et al: Glomus tympanicum tumour: an alternative surgical technique. J Laryngol Otol. 117(6):462-6, 2003
                                                                                          26. Forest JA 3rd et al: Long-term control of surgically treated glomus tympanicum tumors. Otol Neurotol. 22(2):232-6, 2001
                                                                                          27. Jackson CG: Glomus tympanicum and glomus jugulare tumors. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 34(5):941-70, vii, 2001
                                                                                          28. Mafee MF et al: Glomus faciale, glomus jugulare, glomus tympanicum, glomus vagale, carotid body tumors, and simulating lesions: role of MRI. Radiol Clin North Am. 38: 1059-76, 2000
                                                                                          29. Noujaim SE et al: Paraganglioma of the temporal bone: role of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 11(2):108-22, 2000
                                                                                          30. Maier W et al: Paraganglioma as a systemic syndrome: pitfalls and strategies. J Laryngol Otol. 113(11):978-82, 1999
                                                                                          31. Rao AB et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Paragangliomas of the head and neck: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Radiographics. 19(6):1605-32, 1999
                                                                                          32. Liscak R et al: Leksell gamma knife radiosurgery of the tumor glomus jugulare and tympanicum. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 70 Suppl 1:152-60, 1998
                                                                                          33. Weissman JL et al: Beyond the promontory: the multifocal origin of glomus tympanicum tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(1):119-22, 1998
                                                                                          34. Alshaikhly A et al: Glomus tympanicum chemodectoma: unusual radiological findings. J Laryngol Otol. 108(7):607-9, 1994
                                                                                          35. Baguley DM et al: Audiological findings in glomus tumours. Br J Audiol. 28(6):291-7, 1994
                                                                                          36. Jacobs IN et al: Glomus tympanicum in infancy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 120(2):203-5, 1994
                                                                                          37. Balatsouras DG et al: Multiple glomus tumours. J Laryngol Otol. 106(6):538-43, 1992
                                                                                          38. O'Leary MJ et al: Glomus tympanicum tumors: a clinical perspective. Laryngoscope. 101(10):1038-43, 1991
                                                                                          39. Larson TC et al: Glomus tympanicum chemodectomas: Radiographic and clinical characteristics. Radiology. 163(3):801-6, 1987