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Goiter
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Fetal thyroid enlargement due to hyper- or hypothyroidism
              • Rarely, goiter may be present in euthyroid fetus
            • Fetal hyperthyroid state due to maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies
            • Fetal hypothyroid state most commonly due to maternal antithyroid medication or endemic iodine deficiency

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Donnelly MA et al: Early severe fetal Graves disease in a mother after thyroid ablation and thyroidectomy. Obstet Gynecol. 125(5):1059-62, 2015
                                  2. Mastrolia SA et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroid fetal goiter in an euthyroid mother: a case report and review of literature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-7, 2014
                                  3. Polak M et al: Fetal thyroidology. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 28(2):161-73, 2014
                                  4. Patil-Sisodia K et al: Graves hyperthyroidism and pregnancy: a clinical update. Endocr Pract. 16(1):118-29, 2010
                                  5. Raymond J et al: Fetal and neonatal thyroid function: review and summary of significant new findings. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 17(1):1-7, 2010
                                  6. Stoppa-Vaucher S et al: Non-immune goiter and hypothyroidism in a 19-week fetus: a plea for conservative treatment. J Pediatr. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                  7. Hanono A et al: Antenatal treatment of fetal goiter: a therapeutic challenge. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 22(1):76-80, 2009
                                  8. Huel C et al: Use of ultrasound to distinguish between fetal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on discovery of a goiter. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(4):412-20, 2009
                                  9. Jain V et al: Fetal euthyroid goiter. Indian J Pediatr. 76(12):1259-60, 2009
                                  10. Mayor-Lynn KA et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of a dyshormonogenetic fetal goiter. J Ultrasound Med. 28(1):67-71, 2009
                                  11. Thomas Jde V et al: Perinatal goiter with increased iodine uptake and hypothyroidism due to excess maternal iodine ingestion. Horm Res. 72(6):344-7, 2009
                                  12. Lazarus JH: Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Treat Endocrinol. 4(1):31-41, 2005
                                  13. Polak M et al: Fetal and neonatal thyroid function in relation to maternal Graves' disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 18(2):289-302, 2004
                                  14. Yanai N et al: Fetal hydrops, associated with maternal propylthiouracil exposure, reversed by intrauterine therapy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(2):198-201, 2004
                                  15. Cohen O et al: Serial in utero ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal thyroid: a new complementary tool in the management of maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 23(9):740-2, 2003
                                  16. Nachum Z et al: Graves' disease in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of a selective invasive treatment protocol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 189(1):159-65, 2003
                                  17. Karabulut N et al: MR imaging findings in fetal goiter caused by maternal graves disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 26(4):538-40, 2002
                                  18. Ranzini AC et al: Ultrasonography of the fetal thyroid: nomograms based on biparietal diameter and gestational age. J Ultrasound Med. 20(6):613-7, 2001
                                  19. Ho SS et al: Normal fetal thyroid volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 11(2):118-22, 1998
                                  20. Abuhamad AZ et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(5):368-71, 1995
                                  21. Bromley B et al: The fetal thyroid: normal and abnormal sonographic measurements. J Ultrasound Med. 11(1):25-8, 1992
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Definitions

                                            • Fetal thyroid enlargement due to hyper- or hypothyroidism
                                              • Rarely, goiter may be present in euthyroid fetus
                                            • Fetal hyperthyroid state due to maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies
                                            • Fetal hypothyroid state most commonly due to maternal antithyroid medication or endemic iodine deficiency

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Donnelly MA et al: Early severe fetal Graves disease in a mother after thyroid ablation and thyroidectomy. Obstet Gynecol. 125(5):1059-62, 2015
                                                                  2. Mastrolia SA et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroid fetal goiter in an euthyroid mother: a case report and review of literature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 1-7, 2014
                                                                  3. Polak M et al: Fetal thyroidology. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 28(2):161-73, 2014
                                                                  4. Patil-Sisodia K et al: Graves hyperthyroidism and pregnancy: a clinical update. Endocr Pract. 16(1):118-29, 2010
                                                                  5. Raymond J et al: Fetal and neonatal thyroid function: review and summary of significant new findings. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 17(1):1-7, 2010
                                                                  6. Stoppa-Vaucher S et al: Non-immune goiter and hypothyroidism in a 19-week fetus: a plea for conservative treatment. J Pediatr. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                  7. Hanono A et al: Antenatal treatment of fetal goiter: a therapeutic challenge. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 22(1):76-80, 2009
                                                                  8. Huel C et al: Use of ultrasound to distinguish between fetal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on discovery of a goiter. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 33(4):412-20, 2009
                                                                  9. Jain V et al: Fetal euthyroid goiter. Indian J Pediatr. 76(12):1259-60, 2009
                                                                  10. Mayor-Lynn KA et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of a dyshormonogenetic fetal goiter. J Ultrasound Med. 28(1):67-71, 2009
                                                                  11. Thomas Jde V et al: Perinatal goiter with increased iodine uptake and hypothyroidism due to excess maternal iodine ingestion. Horm Res. 72(6):344-7, 2009
                                                                  12. Lazarus JH: Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Treat Endocrinol. 4(1):31-41, 2005
                                                                  13. Polak M et al: Fetal and neonatal thyroid function in relation to maternal Graves' disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 18(2):289-302, 2004
                                                                  14. Yanai N et al: Fetal hydrops, associated with maternal propylthiouracil exposure, reversed by intrauterine therapy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 23(2):198-201, 2004
                                                                  15. Cohen O et al: Serial in utero ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal thyroid: a new complementary tool in the management of maternal hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Prenat Diagn. 23(9):740-2, 2003
                                                                  16. Nachum Z et al: Graves' disease in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of a selective invasive treatment protocol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 189(1):159-65, 2003
                                                                  17. Karabulut N et al: MR imaging findings in fetal goiter caused by maternal graves disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 26(4):538-40, 2002
                                                                  18. Ranzini AC et al: Ultrasonography of the fetal thyroid: nomograms based on biparietal diameter and gestational age. J Ultrasound Med. 20(6):613-7, 2001
                                                                  19. Ho SS et al: Normal fetal thyroid volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 11(2):118-22, 1998
                                                                  20. Abuhamad AZ et al: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 6(5):368-71, 1995
                                                                  21. Bromley B et al: The fetal thyroid: normal and abnormal sonographic measurements. J Ultrasound Med. 11(1):25-8, 1992