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Gonadal Stromal Tumors, Testis
Shweta Bhatt, MD; Frank Chen, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Gonadal stromal tumors (GSTs)
          • Synonyms

            • Also called non-germ cell tumors, interstitial cell tumors, or sex cord tumors
          • Definitions

            • Neoplasm arising from non-germ cell elements
            • Leydig cell tumor (LCT): Arises from interstitial cells
            • Sertoli cell tumor (SCT): Arises from sustentacular cells lining seminiferous tubules
            • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT): Rare sex cord tumor
            • Gonadoblastoma: Contains both stromal and germ cell elements

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                Selected References

                                1. Khanna M et al: Diagnostic performance of multi-parametric MRI to differentiate benign sex cord stromal tumors from malignant (non-stromal and stromal) testicular neoplasms. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(1):31-330, 2020
                                2. Tsili AC et al: MRI of testicular malignancies. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1070-82, 2019
                                3. Maxwell F et al: Colour Doppler and ultrasound characteristics of testicular Leydig cell tumours. Br J Radiol. 89(1062):20160089, 2016
                                4. Manganaro L et al: A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours. Eur Radiol. 25(12):3586-95, 2015
                                5. Leylek AM et al: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. Ultrasound Q. 30(3):219-20, 2014
                                6. Tsitouridis I et al: Eleven patients with testicular leydig cell tumors: clinical, imaging, and pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 33(10):1855-64, 2014
                                7. Tsitouridis I et al: Adult type granulosa cell tumor of the testis: Radiological evaluation and review of the literature. Turk J Urol. 40(2):115-9, 2014
                                8. Miliaras D et al: Adult type granulosa cell tumor: a very rare case of sex-cord tumor of the testis with review of the literature. Case Rep Pathol. 2013:932086, 2013
                                9. Cantisani V et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic (CEUS) and elastosonographic features of a case of testicular Leydig tumor. Ultraschall Med. 33(5):407-9, 2012
                                10. Leonhartsberger N et al: Increased incidence of Leydig cell tumours of the testis in the era of improved imaging techniques. BJU Int. 108(10):1603-7, 2011
                                11. Tallen G et al: High reliability of scrotal ultrasonography in the management of childhood primary testicular neoplasms. Klin Padiatr. 223(3):131-7, 2011
                                12. Zugor V et al: Congenital juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis in newborns. Anticancer Res. 30(5):1731-4, 2010
                                13. Sajadi KP et al: Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis. Adv Urol. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2612754, 2009
                                14. Peterson C et al: Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. J Pediatr Urol. 4(6):472-4, 2008
                                15. Maizlin ZV et al: Leydig cell tumors of the testis: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 23(7):959-64, 2004
                                16. Carmignani L et al: High incidence of benign testicular neoplasms diagnosed by ultrasound. J Urol. 170(5):1783-6, 2003
                                17. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                18. Ulbright TM et al. Tumors of the testis, adnexa, spermatic cord, and scrotum. In: Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1–290, 1999
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Abbreviations

                                          • Gonadal stromal tumors (GSTs)
                                        • Synonyms

                                          • Also called non-germ cell tumors, interstitial cell tumors, or sex cord tumors
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Neoplasm arising from non-germ cell elements
                                          • Leydig cell tumor (LCT): Arises from interstitial cells
                                          • Sertoli cell tumor (SCT): Arises from sustentacular cells lining seminiferous tubules
                                          • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT): Rare sex cord tumor
                                          • Gonadoblastoma: Contains both stromal and germ cell elements

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Demographics

                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Khanna M et al: Diagnostic performance of multi-parametric MRI to differentiate benign sex cord stromal tumors from malignant (non-stromal and stromal) testicular neoplasms. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(1):31-330, 2020
                                                              2. Tsili AC et al: MRI of testicular malignancies. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(3):1070-82, 2019
                                                              3. Maxwell F et al: Colour Doppler and ultrasound characteristics of testicular Leydig cell tumours. Br J Radiol. 89(1062):20160089, 2016
                                                              4. Manganaro L et al: A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours. Eur Radiol. 25(12):3586-95, 2015
                                                              5. Leylek AM et al: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. Ultrasound Q. 30(3):219-20, 2014
                                                              6. Tsitouridis I et al: Eleven patients with testicular leydig cell tumors: clinical, imaging, and pathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med. 33(10):1855-64, 2014
                                                              7. Tsitouridis I et al: Adult type granulosa cell tumor of the testis: Radiological evaluation and review of the literature. Turk J Urol. 40(2):115-9, 2014
                                                              8. Miliaras D et al: Adult type granulosa cell tumor: a very rare case of sex-cord tumor of the testis with review of the literature. Case Rep Pathol. 2013:932086, 2013
                                                              9. Cantisani V et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic (CEUS) and elastosonographic features of a case of testicular Leydig tumor. Ultraschall Med. 33(5):407-9, 2012
                                                              10. Leonhartsberger N et al: Increased incidence of Leydig cell tumours of the testis in the era of improved imaging techniques. BJU Int. 108(10):1603-7, 2011
                                                              11. Tallen G et al: High reliability of scrotal ultrasonography in the management of childhood primary testicular neoplasms. Klin Padiatr. 223(3):131-7, 2011
                                                              12. Zugor V et al: Congenital juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis in newborns. Anticancer Res. 30(5):1731-4, 2010
                                                              13. Sajadi KP et al: Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis. Adv Urol. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2612754, 2009
                                                              14. Peterson C et al: Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. J Pediatr Urol. 4(6):472-4, 2008
                                                              15. Maizlin ZV et al: Leydig cell tumors of the testis: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med. 23(7):959-64, 2004
                                                              16. Carmignani L et al: High incidence of benign testicular neoplasms diagnosed by ultrasound. J Urol. 170(5):1783-6, 2003
                                                              17. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(1):189-216, 2002
                                                              18. Ulbright TM et al. Tumors of the testis, adnexa, spermatic cord, and scrotum. In: Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1–290, 1999