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Granulomatous Mastitis
Lori Strachowski, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM)
              • Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM)
              • Postlactational granulomatous mastitis
            • Definitions

              • Noninfective inflammatory condition of breast, typically in parous women, characterized by lobulocentric, noncaseating granulomas

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Mammographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Image-Guided Biopsy

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Barreto DS et al: Granulomatous mastitis: etiology, imaging, pathology, treatment, and clinical findings. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 171(3):527-34, 2018
                                            2. Co M et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a 10-year study from a multicentre clinical database. Pathology. 50(7):742-7, 2018
                                            3. Pluguez-Turull CW et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: manifestations at multimodality imaging and pitfalls. Radiographics. 38(2):330-56, 2018
                                            4. Wong SCY et al: Novel selective medium for the isolation of corynebacterium kroppenstedtii from heavily colonised clinical specimens. J Clin Pathol. 71(9):781-6, 2018
                                            5. Chu AN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of granulomatous mastitis. Clin Imaging. 43:199-201, 2017
                                            6. Sam KQ et al: Granulomatous mastitis in a transgender patient. J Radiol Case Rep. 11(2):16-22, 2017
                                            7. Kim BS et al: Usefulness of ultrasound-guided intralesional steroid injection in management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. J Surg Ultrasound. 3:40-5, 2016
                                            8. Fazzio RT et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: imaging update and review. Insights Imaging. 7(4):531-9, 2016
                                            9. Oztekin PS et al: Imaging findings in patients with granulomatous mastitis. Iran J Radiol. 13(3):e33900, 2016
                                            10. Tauch A et al: A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii. Int J Infect Dis. 48:33-9, 2016
                                            11. Aghajanzadeh M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: presentations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome in 206 patients from the north of Iran. Breast. 24(4):456-60, 2015
                                            12. Yukawa M et al: Management of granulomatous mastitis: a series of 13 patients who were evaluated for treatment without corticosteroids. Int Surg. 100(5):774-82, 2015
                                            13. Altintoprak F et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: an autoimmune disease? ScientificWorldJournal. 2013:148727, 2013
                                            14. Mohammed S et al: Granulomatous mastitis: a 10 year experience from a large inner city county hospital. J Surg Res. 184(1):299-303, 2013
                                            15. Erozgen F et al: Corticosteroid treatment and timing of surgery in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis confusing with breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 123(2):447-52, 2010
                                            16. Hovanessian Larsen LJ et al: Granulomatous lobular mastitis: imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(2):574-81, 2009
                                            17. Al-Khaffaf B et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a 25-year experience. J Am Coll Surg. 206(2):269-73, 2008
                                            18. Baslaim MM et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation. World J Surg. 31(8):1677-81, 2007
                                            19. Marriott DA et al: Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis masquerading as a breast abscess and breast carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 30(5):564-5, 2007
                                            20. Ozturk M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings. Acta Radiol. 48(2):150-5, 2007
                                            21. Wilson JP et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: in search of a therapeutic paradigm. Am Surg. 73(8):798-802, 2007
                                            22. Asoglu O et al: Feasibility of surgical management in patients with granulomatous mastitis. Breast J. 11(2):108-14, 2005
                                            23. Lai EC et al: The role of conservative treatment in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Breast J. 11(6):454-6, 2005
                                            24. Bani-Hani KE et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: time to avoid unnecessary mastectomies. Breast J. 10(4):318-22, 2004
                                            25. Diesing D et al: Granulomatous mastitis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 269(4):233-6, 2004
                                            26. Kocaoglu M et al: Imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. A review with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(5):635-41, 2004
                                            27. Tse GM et al: Granulomatous mastitis: a clinicopathological review of 26 cases. Pathology. 36(3):254-7, 2004
                                            28. Kim J et al: Methotrexate in the management of granulomatous mastitis. ANZ J Surg. 73(4):247-9, 2003
                                            29. Taylor GB et al: A clinicopathological review of 34 cases of inflammatory breast disease showing an association between corynebacteria infection and granulomatous mastitis. Pathology. 35(2):109-19, 2003
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM)
                                                        • Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM)
                                                        • Postlactational granulomatous mastitis
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Noninfective inflammatory condition of breast, typically in parous women, characterized by lobulocentric, noncaseating granulomas

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Mammographic Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Barreto DS et al: Granulomatous mastitis: etiology, imaging, pathology, treatment, and clinical findings. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 171(3):527-34, 2018
                                                                                      2. Co M et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a 10-year study from a multicentre clinical database. Pathology. 50(7):742-7, 2018
                                                                                      3. Pluguez-Turull CW et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: manifestations at multimodality imaging and pitfalls. Radiographics. 38(2):330-56, 2018
                                                                                      4. Wong SCY et al: Novel selective medium for the isolation of corynebacterium kroppenstedtii from heavily colonised clinical specimens. J Clin Pathol. 71(9):781-6, 2018
                                                                                      5. Chu AN et al: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of granulomatous mastitis. Clin Imaging. 43:199-201, 2017
                                                                                      6. Sam KQ et al: Granulomatous mastitis in a transgender patient. J Radiol Case Rep. 11(2):16-22, 2017
                                                                                      7. Kim BS et al: Usefulness of ultrasound-guided intralesional steroid injection in management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. J Surg Ultrasound. 3:40-5, 2016
                                                                                      8. Fazzio RT et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: imaging update and review. Insights Imaging. 7(4):531-9, 2016
                                                                                      9. Oztekin PS et al: Imaging findings in patients with granulomatous mastitis. Iran J Radiol. 13(3):e33900, 2016
                                                                                      10. Tauch A et al: A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii. Int J Infect Dis. 48:33-9, 2016
                                                                                      11. Aghajanzadeh M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: presentations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome in 206 patients from the north of Iran. Breast. 24(4):456-60, 2015
                                                                                      12. Yukawa M et al: Management of granulomatous mastitis: a series of 13 patients who were evaluated for treatment without corticosteroids. Int Surg. 100(5):774-82, 2015
                                                                                      13. Altintoprak F et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: an autoimmune disease? ScientificWorldJournal. 2013:148727, 2013
                                                                                      14. Mohammed S et al: Granulomatous mastitis: a 10 year experience from a large inner city county hospital. J Surg Res. 184(1):299-303, 2013
                                                                                      15. Erozgen F et al: Corticosteroid treatment and timing of surgery in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis confusing with breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 123(2):447-52, 2010
                                                                                      16. Hovanessian Larsen LJ et al: Granulomatous lobular mastitis: imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(2):574-81, 2009
                                                                                      17. Al-Khaffaf B et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a 25-year experience. J Am Coll Surg. 206(2):269-73, 2008
                                                                                      18. Baslaim MM et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation. World J Surg. 31(8):1677-81, 2007
                                                                                      19. Marriott DA et al: Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis masquerading as a breast abscess and breast carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 30(5):564-5, 2007
                                                                                      20. Ozturk M et al: Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings. Acta Radiol. 48(2):150-5, 2007
                                                                                      21. Wilson JP et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: in search of a therapeutic paradigm. Am Surg. 73(8):798-802, 2007
                                                                                      22. Asoglu O et al: Feasibility of surgical management in patients with granulomatous mastitis. Breast J. 11(2):108-14, 2005
                                                                                      23. Lai EC et al: The role of conservative treatment in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Breast J. 11(6):454-6, 2005
                                                                                      24. Bani-Hani KE et al: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: time to avoid unnecessary mastectomies. Breast J. 10(4):318-22, 2004
                                                                                      25. Diesing D et al: Granulomatous mastitis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 269(4):233-6, 2004
                                                                                      26. Kocaoglu M et al: Imaging findings in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. A review with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 28(5):635-41, 2004
                                                                                      27. Tse GM et al: Granulomatous mastitis: a clinicopathological review of 26 cases. Pathology. 36(3):254-7, 2004
                                                                                      28. Kim J et al: Methotrexate in the management of granulomatous mastitis. ANZ J Surg. 73(4):247-9, 2003
                                                                                      29. Taylor GB et al: A clinicopathological review of 34 cases of inflammatory breast disease showing an association between corynebacteria infection and granulomatous mastitis. Pathology. 35(2):109-19, 2003