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Gray Matter Heterotopia
Anne M. Kennedy, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Abnormal location of nerve cells (in nodular or laminar distribution) in areas other than cortex
              • Subependymal: Nodular or linear areas along ventricular lining
              • Subcortical: Nodules extend from ventricular surface into hemispheric white matter
              • Band: Layer of gray matter between ventricles and cortex (a.k.a. double cortex)

          IMAGING

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                PATHOLOGY

                • General Features

                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                    • Consider

                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                        Selected References

                        1. Fukumura S et al: Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain. Childs Nerv Syst. ePub, 2015
                        2. Watrin F et al: Causes and consequences of gray matter heterotopia. CNS Neurosci Ther. 21(2):112-22, 2015
                        3. Abe Y et al: Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly: a case report. J Child Neurol. 29(6):818-22, 2014
                        4. Zając-Mnich M et al: Clinical and morphological aspects of gray matter heterotopia type developmental malformations. Pol J Radiol. 79:502-7, 2014
                        5. Baas AF et al: Agenesis of the corpus callosum and gray matter heterotopia in three patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 21(1):55-61, 2013
                        6. Manganaro L et al: Bilateral subependymal heterotopia, ventriculomegaly and cerebellar asymmetry: fetal MRI findings of a rare association of brain anomalies. J Radiol Case Rep. 7(11):38-45, 2013
                        7. Cardoso C et al: Periventricular heterotopia, mental retardation, and epilepsy associated with 5q14.3-q15 deletion. Neurology. 72(9):784-92, 2009
                        8. Tang PH et al: Agenesis of the corpus callosum: an MR imaging analysis of associated abnormalities in the fetus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(2):257-63, 2009
                        9. Pistorius LR et al: Disturbance of cerebral neuronal migration following congenital parvovirus B19 infection. Fetal Diagn Ther. 24(4):491-4, 2008
                        10. Volpe P et al: Characteristics, associations and outcome of partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in the fetus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 27(5):509-16, 2006
                        11. Fogliarini C et al: Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI: part II: abnormalities of cortical maturation. Eur Radiol. 15(9):1781-9, 2005
                        12. Bargalló N et al: Hereditary subependymal heterotopia associated with mega cisterna magna: antenatal diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(1):86-9, 2002
                        13. Mancini J et al: Brain injuries in early foetal life: consequences for brain development. Dev Med Child Neurol. 43(1):52-5, 2001
                        14. Brodtkorb E et al: Is monochorionic twinning a risk factor for focal cortical dysgenesis? Acta Neurol Scand. 102(1):53-9, 2000
                        Related Anatomy
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                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                        References
                        Tables

                        Tables

                        KEY FACTS

                        • Terminology

                          • Imaging

                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                TERMINOLOGY

                                • Definitions

                                  • Abnormal location of nerve cells (in nodular or laminar distribution) in areas other than cortex
                                    • Subependymal: Nodular or linear areas along ventricular lining
                                    • Subcortical: Nodules extend from ventricular surface into hemispheric white matter
                                    • Band: Layer of gray matter between ventricles and cortex (a.k.a. double cortex)

                                IMAGING

                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                  • MR Findings

                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                      PATHOLOGY

                                      • General Features

                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Fukumura S et al: Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain. Childs Nerv Syst. ePub, 2015
                                              2. Watrin F et al: Causes and consequences of gray matter heterotopia. CNS Neurosci Ther. 21(2):112-22, 2015
                                              3. Abe Y et al: Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly: a case report. J Child Neurol. 29(6):818-22, 2014
                                              4. Zając-Mnich M et al: Clinical and morphological aspects of gray matter heterotopia type developmental malformations. Pol J Radiol. 79:502-7, 2014
                                              5. Baas AF et al: Agenesis of the corpus callosum and gray matter heterotopia in three patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 21(1):55-61, 2013
                                              6. Manganaro L et al: Bilateral subependymal heterotopia, ventriculomegaly and cerebellar asymmetry: fetal MRI findings of a rare association of brain anomalies. J Radiol Case Rep. 7(11):38-45, 2013
                                              7. Cardoso C et al: Periventricular heterotopia, mental retardation, and epilepsy associated with 5q14.3-q15 deletion. Neurology. 72(9):784-92, 2009
                                              8. Tang PH et al: Agenesis of the corpus callosum: an MR imaging analysis of associated abnormalities in the fetus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(2):257-63, 2009
                                              9. Pistorius LR et al: Disturbance of cerebral neuronal migration following congenital parvovirus B19 infection. Fetal Diagn Ther. 24(4):491-4, 2008
                                              10. Volpe P et al: Characteristics, associations and outcome of partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in the fetus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 27(5):509-16, 2006
                                              11. Fogliarini C et al: Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI: part II: abnormalities of cortical maturation. Eur Radiol. 15(9):1781-9, 2005
                                              12. Bargalló N et al: Hereditary subependymal heterotopia associated with mega cisterna magna: antenatal diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 20(1):86-9, 2002
                                              13. Mancini J et al: Brain injuries in early foetal life: consequences for brain development. Dev Med Child Neurol. 43(1):52-5, 2001
                                              14. Brodtkorb E et al: Is monochorionic twinning a risk factor for focal cortical dysgenesis? Acta Neurol Scand. 102(1):53-9, 2000