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Grisel Syndrome
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Nontraumatic atlantoaxial subluxation
              • Atlantoaxial rotary fixation/subluxation
            • Definitions

              • Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation accompanying respiratory infection or otolaryngolic surgery

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kerolus M et al: Atlantoaxial Instability of Inflammatory Origin in Adults: Case Reports, Literature Review and Rationale for Early Surgical Intervention. Neurosurgery. ePub, 2014
                                      2. Kim SY et al: Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation after tympanoplasty. Otol Neurotol. 32(7):1108-10, 2011
                                      3. Ortega-Evangelio G et al: Eponym : Grisel syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 170(8):965-8, 2011
                                      4. Harma A et al: Grisel syndrome: nontraumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. J Craniofac Surg. 19(4):1119-21, 2008
                                      5. Battiata AP et al: Grisel's syndrome: the two-hit hypothesis--a case report and literature review. Ear Nose Throat J. 83(8):553-5, 2004
                                      6. Harth M et al: Lateral torticollis on plain radiographs and MRI: Grisel syndrome. Eur Radiol. 14(9):1713-5, 2004
                                      7. Ugur HC et al: Infection-related atlantoaxial subluxation in two adults: Grisel syndrome or not? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 145(1):69-72, 2003
                                      8. Holcomb JD et al: Nontraumatic atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in the pediatric otolaryngology patient. A report of four cases. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 110(12):1137-40, 2001
                                      9. Martinez-Lage JF et al: Atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation in children: early management. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 143(12):1223-8, 2001
                                      10. Muñiz AE et al: Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 15(1):25-9, 1999
                                      11. Dickman CA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the transverse atlantal ligament for the evaluation of atlantoaxial instability. J Neurosurg. 75(2):221-7, 1991
                                      12. Kowalski HM et al: Pitfalls in the CT diagnosis of atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(3):595-600, 1987
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Nontraumatic atlantoaxial subluxation
                                                  • Atlantoaxial rotary fixation/subluxation
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation accompanying respiratory infection or otolaryngolic surgery

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kerolus M et al: Atlantoaxial Instability of Inflammatory Origin in Adults: Case Reports, Literature Review and Rationale for Early Surgical Intervention. Neurosurgery. ePub, 2014
                                                                          2. Kim SY et al: Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation after tympanoplasty. Otol Neurotol. 32(7):1108-10, 2011
                                                                          3. Ortega-Evangelio G et al: Eponym : Grisel syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 170(8):965-8, 2011
                                                                          4. Harma A et al: Grisel syndrome: nontraumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. J Craniofac Surg. 19(4):1119-21, 2008
                                                                          5. Battiata AP et al: Grisel's syndrome: the two-hit hypothesis--a case report and literature review. Ear Nose Throat J. 83(8):553-5, 2004
                                                                          6. Harth M et al: Lateral torticollis on plain radiographs and MRI: Grisel syndrome. Eur Radiol. 14(9):1713-5, 2004
                                                                          7. Ugur HC et al: Infection-related atlantoaxial subluxation in two adults: Grisel syndrome or not? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 145(1):69-72, 2003
                                                                          8. Holcomb JD et al: Nontraumatic atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in the pediatric otolaryngology patient. A report of four cases. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 110(12):1137-40, 2001
                                                                          9. Martinez-Lage JF et al: Atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation in children: early management. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 143(12):1223-8, 2001
                                                                          10. Muñiz AE et al: Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 15(1):25-9, 1999
                                                                          11. Dickman CA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the transverse atlantal ligament for the evaluation of atlantoaxial instability. J Neurosurg. 75(2):221-7, 1991
                                                                          12. Kowalski HM et al: Pitfalls in the CT diagnosis of atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(3):595-600, 1987