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Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
              • Synonyms

                • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP)
                • Ascending paralysis
              • Definitions

                • Group of disorders characterized by acute development of weakness & diminished reflexes secondary to inflammatory polyradiculopathy
                  • Several subtypes exist
                    • AIDP
                    • Acute motor axonal neuropathy
                    • Acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy
                    • Miller-Fisher syndrome
                • Primarily clinical diagnosis with supporting imaging findings

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Chung A et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Rev. 39(1):53-4, 2018
                                              2. Mancera-Páez O et al: Concurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis and encephalitis post-Zika: a case report and review of the pathogenic role of multiple arboviral immunity. J Neurol Sci. 395:47-53, 2018
                                              3. Principi N et al: Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre' syndrome. Vaccine. ePub, 2018
                                              4. Bordini BJ et al: Differentiating familial neuropathies from Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am. 64(1):231-52, 2017
                                              5. Wijdicks EF et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 92(3):467-79, 2017
                                              6. Fontes CA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus infection. Neuroradiology. 58(8):837-8, 2016
                                              7. Heikema AP et al: Campylobacter jejuni capsular genotypes are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Microbiol Infect. 21(9):852.e1-9, 2015
                                              8. Capasso M et al: Involvement of sensory fibres in axonal subtypes of Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 82(6):664-70, 2011
                                              9. Orlikowski D et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome following primary cytomegalovirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 52(7):837-44, 2011
                                              10. Roodbol J et al: Recognizing Guillain-Barre syndrome in preschool children. Neurology. 76(9):807-10, 2011
                                              11. Zuccoli G et al: Redefining the Guillain-Barré spectrum in children: neuroimaging findings of cranial nerve involvement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(4):639-42, 2011
                                              12. Buzzigoli SB et al: Plasmapheresis treatment in Guillain-Barré syndrome: potential benefit over intravenous immunoglobulin. Anaesth Intensive Care. 38(2):387-9, 2010
                                              13. Islam Z et al: Axonal variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection in Bangladesh. Neurology. 74(7):581-7, 2010
                                              14. Mulkey SB et al: Nerve root enhancement on spinal MRI in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 43(4):263-9, 2010
                                              15. Vallat JM et al: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for a treatable condition. Lancet Neurol. 9(4):402-12, 2010
                                              16. van Doorn PA et al: IVIG treatment and prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 30 Suppl 1:S74-8, 2010
                                              17. Chang YW et al: Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 33(11):791-3, 2003
                                              18. Cheng BC et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome in southern Taiwan: clinical features, prognostic factors and therapeutic outcomes. Eur J Neurol. 10(6):655-62, 2003
                                              19. Haber P et al: Influenza vaccination and Guillain Barré syndrome. Clin Immunol. 109(3):359; author reply 360-1, 2003
                                              20. Duarte J et al: Hypertrophy of multiple cranial nerves and spinal roots in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 67(5):685-7, 1999
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP)
                                                            • Ascending paralysis
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Group of disorders characterized by acute development of weakness & diminished reflexes secondary to inflammatory polyradiculopathy
                                                              • Several subtypes exist
                                                                • AIDP
                                                                • Acute motor axonal neuropathy
                                                                • Acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy
                                                                • Miller-Fisher syndrome
                                                            • Primarily clinical diagnosis with supporting imaging findings

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Chung A et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Rev. 39(1):53-4, 2018
                                                                                          2. Mancera-Páez O et al: Concurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis and encephalitis post-Zika: a case report and review of the pathogenic role of multiple arboviral immunity. J Neurol Sci. 395:47-53, 2018
                                                                                          3. Principi N et al: Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre' syndrome. Vaccine. ePub, 2018
                                                                                          4. Bordini BJ et al: Differentiating familial neuropathies from Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am. 64(1):231-52, 2017
                                                                                          5. Wijdicks EF et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 92(3):467-79, 2017
                                                                                          6. Fontes CA et al: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus infection. Neuroradiology. 58(8):837-8, 2016
                                                                                          7. Heikema AP et al: Campylobacter jejuni capsular genotypes are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Microbiol Infect. 21(9):852.e1-9, 2015
                                                                                          8. Capasso M et al: Involvement of sensory fibres in axonal subtypes of Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 82(6):664-70, 2011
                                                                                          9. Orlikowski D et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome following primary cytomegalovirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 52(7):837-44, 2011
                                                                                          10. Roodbol J et al: Recognizing Guillain-Barre syndrome in preschool children. Neurology. 76(9):807-10, 2011
                                                                                          11. Zuccoli G et al: Redefining the Guillain-Barré spectrum in children: neuroimaging findings of cranial nerve involvement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(4):639-42, 2011
                                                                                          12. Buzzigoli SB et al: Plasmapheresis treatment in Guillain-Barré syndrome: potential benefit over intravenous immunoglobulin. Anaesth Intensive Care. 38(2):387-9, 2010
                                                                                          13. Islam Z et al: Axonal variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection in Bangladesh. Neurology. 74(7):581-7, 2010
                                                                                          14. Mulkey SB et al: Nerve root enhancement on spinal MRI in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 43(4):263-9, 2010
                                                                                          15. Vallat JM et al: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for a treatable condition. Lancet Neurol. 9(4):402-12, 2010
                                                                                          16. van Doorn PA et al: IVIG treatment and prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 30 Suppl 1:S74-8, 2010
                                                                                          17. Chang YW et al: Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 33(11):791-3, 2003
                                                                                          18. Cheng BC et al: Guillain-Barré syndrome in southern Taiwan: clinical features, prognostic factors and therapeutic outcomes. Eur J Neurol. 10(6):655-62, 2003
                                                                                          19. Haber P et al: Influenza vaccination and Guillain Barré syndrome. Clin Immunol. 109(3):359; author reply 360-1, 2003
                                                                                          20. Duarte J et al: Hypertrophy of multiple cranial nerves and spinal roots in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 67(5):685-7, 1999