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Gynecomastia
Mohammad Eghtedari, MD, PhD; Wei Tse Yang, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Nonneoplastic enlargement of male breast, secondary to ductal hyperplasia and stromal proliferation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Mammographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Image-Guided Biopsy

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Barone M et al: Treatment of severe gynecomastia after massive weight loss: analysis of long-term outcomes measured with the Italian version of the BODY-Q. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 42(6):1506-18, 2018
                                              2. Chesebro AL et al: Male breast disease: what the radiologist needs to know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2018
                                              3. Expert Panel on Breast Imaging:. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® evaluation of the symptomatic male breast. J Am Coll Radiol. 15(11S):S313-S320, 2018
                                              4. Fentiman IS: Managing male mammary maladies. Eur J Breast Health. 14(1):5-9, 2018
                                              5. Nuzzi LC et al: The effect of surgical treatment for gynecomastia on quality of life in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 63(6):759-65, 2018
                                              6. Foo ET et al: Value of diagnostic imaging for the symptomatic male breast: can we avoid unnecessary biopsies? Clin Imaging. 45:86-91, 2017
                                              7. Guss CE et al: Adolescent gynecomastia. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 14(4):371-7, 2017
                                              8. Leung AK et al: Gynecomastia in infants, children, and adolescents. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 10(2):127-37, 2017
                                              9. Sansone A et al: Gynecomastia and hormones. Endocrine. 55(1):37-44, 2017
                                              10. Soliman AT et al: Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta Biomed. 88(2):204-13, 2017
                                              11. Chau A et al: Male breast: clinical and imaging evaluations of benign and malignant entities with histologic correlation. Am J Med. 129(8):776-91, 2016
                                              12. Lapid O et al: Overuse of imaging the male breast-findings in 557 patients. Breast J. 21(3):219-23, 2015
                                              13. Lattin GE Jr et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: diseases of the male breast: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 33(2):461-89, 2013
                                              14. Doyle S et al: Imaging male breast cancer. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1079-85, 2011
                                              15. Ikard RW et al: Management of senescent gynecomastia in the Veterans Health Administration. Breast J. 17(2):160-6, 2011
                                              16. Iuanow E et al: Spectrum of disease in the male breast. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(3):W247-59, 2011
                                              17. Adibelli ZH et al: Imaging characteristics of male breast disease. Breast J. 16(5):510-8, 2010
                                              18. Dialani V et al: Sonographic features of gynecomastia. J Ultrasound Med. 29(4):539-47, 2010
                                              19. Meerkotter D et al: Evaluation of breast masses in male patients. BMJ. 340:c1579, 2010
                                              20. Muñoz Carrasco R et al: Mammography and ultrasound in the evaluation of male breast disease. Eur Radiol. 20(12):2797-805, 2010
                                              21. Wise GJ et al: Male breast disease. J Am Coll Surg. 200(2):255-69, 2005
                                              22. Bembo SA et al: Gynecomastia: its features, and when and how to treat it. Cleve Clin J Med. 71(6):511-7, 2004
                                              23. Evans GF et al: The diagnostic accuracy of mammography in the evaluation of male breast disease. Am J Surg. 181(2):96-100, 2001
                                              24. Stewart RA et al: Pictorial review: the imaging features of male breast disease. Clin Radiol. 52(10):739-44, 1997
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Nonneoplastic enlargement of male breast, secondary to ductal hyperplasia and stromal proliferation

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Mammographic Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Image-Guided Biopsy

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Barone M et al: Treatment of severe gynecomastia after massive weight loss: analysis of long-term outcomes measured with the Italian version of the BODY-Q. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 42(6):1506-18, 2018
                                                                                          2. Chesebro AL et al: Male breast disease: what the radiologist needs to know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2018
                                                                                          3. Expert Panel on Breast Imaging:. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® evaluation of the symptomatic male breast. J Am Coll Radiol. 15(11S):S313-S320, 2018
                                                                                          4. Fentiman IS: Managing male mammary maladies. Eur J Breast Health. 14(1):5-9, 2018
                                                                                          5. Nuzzi LC et al: The effect of surgical treatment for gynecomastia on quality of life in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 63(6):759-65, 2018
                                                                                          6. Foo ET et al: Value of diagnostic imaging for the symptomatic male breast: can we avoid unnecessary biopsies? Clin Imaging. 45:86-91, 2017
                                                                                          7. Guss CE et al: Adolescent gynecomastia. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 14(4):371-7, 2017
                                                                                          8. Leung AK et al: Gynecomastia in infants, children, and adolescents. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 10(2):127-37, 2017
                                                                                          9. Sansone A et al: Gynecomastia and hormones. Endocrine. 55(1):37-44, 2017
                                                                                          10. Soliman AT et al: Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta Biomed. 88(2):204-13, 2017
                                                                                          11. Chau A et al: Male breast: clinical and imaging evaluations of benign and malignant entities with histologic correlation. Am J Med. 129(8):776-91, 2016
                                                                                          12. Lapid O et al: Overuse of imaging the male breast-findings in 557 patients. Breast J. 21(3):219-23, 2015
                                                                                          13. Lattin GE Jr et al: From the radiologic pathology archives: diseases of the male breast: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 33(2):461-89, 2013
                                                                                          14. Doyle S et al: Imaging male breast cancer. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1079-85, 2011
                                                                                          15. Ikard RW et al: Management of senescent gynecomastia in the Veterans Health Administration. Breast J. 17(2):160-6, 2011
                                                                                          16. Iuanow E et al: Spectrum of disease in the male breast. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(3):W247-59, 2011
                                                                                          17. Adibelli ZH et al: Imaging characteristics of male breast disease. Breast J. 16(5):510-8, 2010
                                                                                          18. Dialani V et al: Sonographic features of gynecomastia. J Ultrasound Med. 29(4):539-47, 2010
                                                                                          19. Meerkotter D et al: Evaluation of breast masses in male patients. BMJ. 340:c1579, 2010
                                                                                          20. Muñoz Carrasco R et al: Mammography and ultrasound in the evaluation of male breast disease. Eur Radiol. 20(12):2797-805, 2010
                                                                                          21. Wise GJ et al: Male breast disease. J Am Coll Surg. 200(2):255-69, 2005
                                                                                          22. Bembo SA et al: Gynecomastia: its features, and when and how to treat it. Cleve Clin J Med. 71(6):511-7, 2004
                                                                                          23. Evans GF et al: The diagnostic accuracy of mammography in the evaluation of male breast disease. Am J Surg. 181(2):96-100, 2001
                                                                                          24. Stewart RA et al: Pictorial review: the imaging features of male breast disease. Clin Radiol. 52(10):739-44, 1997