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Hard Palate Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Hard palate squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
            • Definitions

              • Oral cavity malignancy arising from mucosa overlying hard palate

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Arain AA et al: Occult nodal metastasis in oral cavity cancers. Cureus. 12(11):e11640, 2020
                                              2. Hakim SG et al: Clinical course and survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate: Results from a single-center prospective cohort. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 48(1):111-6, 2020
                                              3. Kim HY et al: Clinical difference between benign and malignant tumors of the hard palate. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 277(3):903-7, 2020
                                              4. Locatello LG et al: A critical evaluation of computed tomography-derived depth of invasion in the preoperative assessment of oral cancer staging. Oral Oncol. 107:104749, 2020
                                              5. Liao CT et al: Tumor depth of invasion (tumor>4 cm/depth>10 mm and depth>20 mm) and through cortex/skin invasion are both valid criteria for classifying tumors as pT4a in AJCC 2018 oral cavity cancer staging system. Ann Surg Oncol. 26(11):3663-72, 2019
                                              6. Gill A et al: AHNS Series: Do you know your guidelines? Evidence-based management of oral cavity cancers. Head Neck. 40(2):406-16, 2018
                                              7. Amin MB et al: American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Staging Manual. 8th ed. Springer, 2017
                                              8. Deneuve S et al: Can early dissection of cervical lymph nodes improve prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the hard palate. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 79(6):314-22, 2017
                                              9. von Stempel C et al: Imaging of palatal lumps. Clin Radiol. 72(2):97-107, 2017
                                              10. Koshkareva Y et al: Cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolus. Ear Nose Throat J. 95(10-11):E6-11, 2016
                                              11. Zhang WB et al: Cervical metastases of oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E2335-42, 2016
                                              12. Givi B et al: Impact of elective neck dissection on the outcome of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising in the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1688-94, 2016
                                              13. Yang X et al: Clinicopathological characteristics and outcome predictors in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva and hard palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(7):1429-36, 2015
                                              14. Arya S et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management. Clin Radiol. 69(9):916-30, 2014
                                              15. Aydil U et al: Neoplasms of the hard palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(3):619-26, 2014
                                              16. Kato H et al: CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors. Eur J Radiol. 83(3):e137-46, 2014
                                              17. Brown JS et al: Management of the neck and regional recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate compared with other sites in the oral cavity. Head Neck. 35(2):265-9, 2012
                                              18. Eskander A et al: Outcome predictors in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Laryngoscope. 123(10):2453-8, 2013
                                              19. Li Q et al: Survival impact of cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of hard palate. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 116(1):23-7, 2013
                                              20. Meng FY et al: The determining risk factors for treatment outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate. Ann Surg Oncol. 19(6):2003-10, 2012
                                              21. Sun J et al: Multifocal cutaneous metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of hard palate. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg.41(7):807-9, 2011
                                              22. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                              23. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                              24. Mourouzis C et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva, alveolus, and hard palate: is there a need for elective neck dissection? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 48(5):345-8, 2010
                                              25. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                              26. Valentini V et al: Management of clinically negative neck in maxillary carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg. 21(3):759-62, 2010
                                              27. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                              28. Wang TC et al: Risk factors affect the survival outcome of hard palatal and maxillary alveolus squamous cell carcinoma: 10-year review in a tertiary referral center. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 110(1):11-7, 2010
                                              29. Lin HW et al: Survival impact of nodal disease in hard palate and maxillary alveolus cancer. Laryngoscope. 119(2):312-5, 2009
                                              30. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                              31. Simental AA Jr et al: Cervical metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Laryngoscope. 116(9):1682-4, 2006
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Hard palate squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Oral cavity malignancy arising from mucosa overlying hard palate

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Arain AA et al: Occult nodal metastasis in oral cavity cancers. Cureus. 12(11):e11640, 2020
                                                                                          2. Hakim SG et al: Clinical course and survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate: Results from a single-center prospective cohort. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 48(1):111-6, 2020
                                                                                          3. Kim HY et al: Clinical difference between benign and malignant tumors of the hard palate. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 277(3):903-7, 2020
                                                                                          4. Locatello LG et al: A critical evaluation of computed tomography-derived depth of invasion in the preoperative assessment of oral cancer staging. Oral Oncol. 107:104749, 2020
                                                                                          5. Liao CT et al: Tumor depth of invasion (tumor>4 cm/depth>10 mm and depth>20 mm) and through cortex/skin invasion are both valid criteria for classifying tumors as pT4a in AJCC 2018 oral cavity cancer staging system. Ann Surg Oncol. 26(11):3663-72, 2019
                                                                                          6. Gill A et al: AHNS Series: Do you know your guidelines? Evidence-based management of oral cavity cancers. Head Neck. 40(2):406-16, 2018
                                                                                          7. Amin MB et al: American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Staging Manual. 8th ed. Springer, 2017
                                                                                          8. Deneuve S et al: Can early dissection of cervical lymph nodes improve prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the hard palate. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 79(6):314-22, 2017
                                                                                          9. von Stempel C et al: Imaging of palatal lumps. Clin Radiol. 72(2):97-107, 2017
                                                                                          10. Koshkareva Y et al: Cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolus. Ear Nose Throat J. 95(10-11):E6-11, 2016
                                                                                          11. Zhang WB et al: Cervical metastases of oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E2335-42, 2016
                                                                                          12. Givi B et al: Impact of elective neck dissection on the outcome of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising in the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1688-94, 2016
                                                                                          13. Yang X et al: Clinicopathological characteristics and outcome predictors in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva and hard palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(7):1429-36, 2015
                                                                                          14. Arya S et al: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management. Clin Radiol. 69(9):916-30, 2014
                                                                                          15. Aydil U et al: Neoplasms of the hard palate. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(3):619-26, 2014
                                                                                          16. Kato H et al: CT and MR imaging findings of palatal tumors. Eur J Radiol. 83(3):e137-46, 2014
                                                                                          17. Brown JS et al: Management of the neck and regional recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate compared with other sites in the oral cavity. Head Neck. 35(2):265-9, 2012
                                                                                          18. Eskander A et al: Outcome predictors in squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Laryngoscope. 123(10):2453-8, 2013
                                                                                          19. Li Q et al: Survival impact of cervical metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of hard palate. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 116(1):23-7, 2013
                                                                                          20. Meng FY et al: The determining risk factors for treatment outcomes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate. Ann Surg Oncol. 19(6):2003-10, 2012
                                                                                          21. Sun J et al: Multifocal cutaneous metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of hard palate. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg.41(7):807-9, 2011
                                                                                          22. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                                                                          23. Jerjes W et al: Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Head Neck Oncol. 2:9, 2010
                                                                                          24. Mourouzis C et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva, alveolus, and hard palate: is there a need for elective neck dissection? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 48(5):345-8, 2010
                                                                                          25. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                                                                          26. Valentini V et al: Management of clinically negative neck in maxillary carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg. 21(3):759-62, 2010
                                                                                          27. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                                                                          28. Wang TC et al: Risk factors affect the survival outcome of hard palatal and maxillary alveolus squamous cell carcinoma: 10-year review in a tertiary referral center. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 110(1):11-7, 2010
                                                                                          29. Lin HW et al: Survival impact of nodal disease in hard palate and maxillary alveolus cancer. Laryngoscope. 119(2):312-5, 2009
                                                                                          30. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                                                                          31. Simental AA Jr et al: Cervical metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary alveolus and hard palate. Laryngoscope. 116(9):1682-4, 2006