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Hardware Failure
Lubdha M. Shah, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Implant or prosthesis failure
            • Definitions

              • Mechanical breakdown or malfunction of hardware
                • Pseudoarthrosis, subsidence

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Fluoroscopic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Other Modality Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Botolin S et al: Aseptic loosening of pedicle screw as a result of metal wear debris in a pediatric patient. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(1):E38-42, 2013
                                              2. Karandikar M et al: Complex pediatric cervical spine surgery using smaller nonspinal screws and plates and intraoperative computed tomography. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(6):594-601, 2012
                                              3. Rutherford EE et al: Lumbar spine fusion and stabilization: hardware, techniques, and imaging appearances. Radiographics. 27(6):1737-49, 2007
                                              4. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                              5. Apfelbaum RI et al: Direct anterior screw fixation for recent and remote odontoid fractures. J Neurosurg. 93(2 Suppl):227-36, 2000
                                              6. Deckey JE et al: Loss of sagittal plane correction after removal of spinal implants. Spine. 25(19):2453-60, 2000
                                              7. Glassman SD et al: The durability of small-diameter rods in lumbar spinal fusion. J Spinal Disord. 13(2):165-7, 2000
                                              8. Geiger F et al: Complications of scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele. Eur Spine J. 8(1):22-6, 1999
                                              9. Wetzel FT et al: Hardware failure in an unconstrained lumbar pedicle screw system. A 2-year follow-up study. Spine. 24(11):1138-43, 1999
                                              10. Lowery GL et al: The significance of hardware failure in anterior cervical plate fixation. Patients with 2- to 7-year follow-up. Spine. 15;23(2):181-6; discussion 186-7, 1998
                                              11. Masferrer R et al: Efficacy of pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of spinal instability and failed back surgery: a 5-year review. J Neurosurg. 89(3):371-7, 1998
                                              12. Wellman BJ et al: Complications of posterior articular mass plate fixation of the subaxial cervical spine in 43 consecutive patients. Spine. 23(2):193-200, 1998
                                              13. Shapiro SA et al: Spinal instrumentation with a low complication rate. Surg Neurol. 48(6):566-74, 1997
                                              14. Paramore CG et al: Radiographic and clinical follow-up review of Caspar plates in 49 patients. J Neurosurg. 84(6):957-61, 1996
                                              15. Blumenthal S et al: Complications of the Wiltse Pedicle Screw Fixation System. Spine. 18(13):1867-71, 1993
                                              16. Guidera KJ et al: Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Results in 52 patients. Spine. 18(4):427-31, 1993
                                              17. McLain RF et al: Early failure of short-segment pedicle instrumentation for thoracolumbar fractures. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 75(2):162-7, 1993
                                              18. Slone RM et al: Spinal fixation. Part 3. Complications of spinal instrumentation. Radiographics. 13(4):797-816, 1993
                                              19. Wilkinson RH et al: Radiographic evaluation of the spine after surgical correction of scoliosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 133(4):703-9, 1979
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Implant or prosthesis failure
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Mechanical breakdown or malfunction of hardware
                                                            • Pseudoarthrosis, subsidence

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Other Modality Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Botolin S et al: Aseptic loosening of pedicle screw as a result of metal wear debris in a pediatric patient. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(1):E38-42, 2013
                                                                                          2. Karandikar M et al: Complex pediatric cervical spine surgery using smaller nonspinal screws and plates and intraoperative computed tomography. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 9(6):594-601, 2012
                                                                                          3. Rutherford EE et al: Lumbar spine fusion and stabilization: hardware, techniques, and imaging appearances. Radiographics. 27(6):1737-49, 2007
                                                                                          4. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                                                                          5. Apfelbaum RI et al: Direct anterior screw fixation for recent and remote odontoid fractures. J Neurosurg. 93(2 Suppl):227-36, 2000
                                                                                          6. Deckey JE et al: Loss of sagittal plane correction after removal of spinal implants. Spine. 25(19):2453-60, 2000
                                                                                          7. Glassman SD et al: The durability of small-diameter rods in lumbar spinal fusion. J Spinal Disord. 13(2):165-7, 2000
                                                                                          8. Geiger F et al: Complications of scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele. Eur Spine J. 8(1):22-6, 1999
                                                                                          9. Wetzel FT et al: Hardware failure in an unconstrained lumbar pedicle screw system. A 2-year follow-up study. Spine. 24(11):1138-43, 1999
                                                                                          10. Lowery GL et al: The significance of hardware failure in anterior cervical plate fixation. Patients with 2- to 7-year follow-up. Spine. 15;23(2):181-6; discussion 186-7, 1998
                                                                                          11. Masferrer R et al: Efficacy of pedicle screw fixation in the treatment of spinal instability and failed back surgery: a 5-year review. J Neurosurg. 89(3):371-7, 1998
                                                                                          12. Wellman BJ et al: Complications of posterior articular mass plate fixation of the subaxial cervical spine in 43 consecutive patients. Spine. 23(2):193-200, 1998
                                                                                          13. Shapiro SA et al: Spinal instrumentation with a low complication rate. Surg Neurol. 48(6):566-74, 1997
                                                                                          14. Paramore CG et al: Radiographic and clinical follow-up review of Caspar plates in 49 patients. J Neurosurg. 84(6):957-61, 1996
                                                                                          15. Blumenthal S et al: Complications of the Wiltse Pedicle Screw Fixation System. Spine. 18(13):1867-71, 1993
                                                                                          16. Guidera KJ et al: Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Results in 52 patients. Spine. 18(4):427-31, 1993
                                                                                          17. McLain RF et al: Early failure of short-segment pedicle instrumentation for thoracolumbar fractures. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 75(2):162-7, 1993
                                                                                          18. Slone RM et al: Spinal fixation. Part 3. Complications of spinal instrumentation. Radiographics. 13(4):797-816, 1993
                                                                                          19. Wilkinson RH et al: Radiographic evaluation of the spine after surgical correction of scoliosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 133(4):703-9, 1979