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Heart Transplant
John P. Lichtenberger, III, MD; Stephan Achenbach, MD, FESC, FACC, FSCCT
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Most frequent form: Orthotopic cardiac allograft transplantation
              • Replacement of patient's heart with human donor's organ
            • Other forms of transplantation
              • Heterotopic cardiac allograft transplantation
                • Infrequently performed
              • Cardiac xenograft transplantation
                • Not performed
            • Common complications of cardiac transplantation
              • Acute cellular rejection
              • Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Echocardiographic Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Radiographic Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • MR Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Imran M et al: Native T1 mapping in the diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection: a prospective histologically validated study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2019
                                    2. Smith JD et al: Evaluation after Orthotopic heart transplant: what the radiologist should know. Radiographics. 180141, 2019
                                    3. Lee MS et al: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: a review. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 92(7):E527-E536, 2018
                                    4. Olymbios M et al: Imaging in heart transplant patients. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 11(10):1514-30, 2018
                                    5. Shah NR et al: Coronary CTA for surveillance of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep. 11(11):26, 2018
                                    6. Wong TC et al: Imaging-based surveillance for graft rejection following heart transplantation: ready for prime time? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2018
                                    7. Chih S et al: Allograft vasculopathy: the achilles' heel of heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 68(1):80-91, 2016
                                    8. Pollack A et al: Detection and imaging of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 6(5):613-23, 2013
                                    9. Christie JD et al: The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: 29th adult lung and heart-lung transplant report-2012. J Heart Lung Transplant. 31(10):1073-86, 2012
                                    10. Butler CR et al: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of acute heart transplant rejection: a review. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 11:7, 2009
                                    11. Estep JD et al: The role of multimodality cardiac imaging in the transplanted heart. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2(9):1126-40, 2009
                                    12. Hunt SA et al: The changing face of heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 52(8):587-98, 2008
                                    13. Schmauss D et al: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: recent developments. Circulation. 117(16):2131-41, 2008
                                    14. Bogot NR et al: Cardiac CT of the transplanted heart: indications, technique, appearance, and complications. Radiographics. 27(5):1297-309, 2007
                                    15. Hoffman FM: Outcomes and complications after heart transplantation: a review. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 20(5 Suppl):S31-42, 2005
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Most frequent form: Orthotopic cardiac allograft transplantation
                                                • Replacement of patient's heart with human donor's organ
                                              • Other forms of transplantation
                                                • Heterotopic cardiac allograft transplantation
                                                  • Infrequently performed
                                                • Cardiac xenograft transplantation
                                                  • Not performed
                                              • Common complications of cardiac transplantation
                                                • Acute cellular rejection
                                                • Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Imran M et al: Native T1 mapping in the diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection: a prospective histologically validated study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2019
                                                                      2. Smith JD et al: Evaluation after Orthotopic heart transplant: what the radiologist should know. Radiographics. 180141, 2019
                                                                      3. Lee MS et al: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: a review. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 92(7):E527-E536, 2018
                                                                      4. Olymbios M et al: Imaging in heart transplant patients. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 11(10):1514-30, 2018
                                                                      5. Shah NR et al: Coronary CTA for surveillance of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep. 11(11):26, 2018
                                                                      6. Wong TC et al: Imaging-based surveillance for graft rejection following heart transplantation: ready for prime time? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. ePub, 2018
                                                                      7. Chih S et al: Allograft vasculopathy: the achilles' heel of heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 68(1):80-91, 2016
                                                                      8. Pollack A et al: Detection and imaging of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 6(5):613-23, 2013
                                                                      9. Christie JD et al: The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: 29th adult lung and heart-lung transplant report-2012. J Heart Lung Transplant. 31(10):1073-86, 2012
                                                                      10. Butler CR et al: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of acute heart transplant rejection: a review. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 11:7, 2009
                                                                      11. Estep JD et al: The role of multimodality cardiac imaging in the transplanted heart. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2(9):1126-40, 2009
                                                                      12. Hunt SA et al: The changing face of heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 52(8):587-98, 2008
                                                                      13. Schmauss D et al: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: recent developments. Circulation. 117(16):2131-41, 2008
                                                                      14. Bogot NR et al: Cardiac CT of the transplanted heart: indications, technique, appearance, and complications. Radiographics. 27(5):1297-309, 2007
                                                                      15. Hoffman FM: Outcomes and complications after heart transplantation: a review. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 20(5 Suppl):S31-42, 2005