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Heart
Melissa L. Rosado de Christenson, MD, FACR
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GENERAL ANATOMY AND FUNCTION

  • Anatomy

    • Function

      CARDIAC SHAPE AND ORIENTATION

      • Shape

        • Orientation

          CARDIAC SURFACES

          • Posterior Surface (Base)

            • Apex

              • Anterior Surface

                • Diaphragmatic Surface

                  • Right Pulmonary Surface

                    • Left Pulmonary Surface

                      CARDIAC BORDERS (MARGINS)

                      • Upper Border

                        • Inferior (Acute) Border

                          • Obtuse (Left) Border

                            • Right Border

                              CARDIAC SULCI OR GROOVES

                              • General Features

                                • Atrioventricular (Coronary) Sulcus or Groove

                                  • Anterior and Posterior Interventricular Sulci or Grooves

                                    CARDIAC CHAMBERS

                                    • Right Atrium

                                      • Right Ventricle

                                        • Left Atrium

                                          • Left Ventricle

                                            CARDIAC SKELETON

                                            • Anatomy

                                              CARDIAC VALVES

                                              • Tricuspid Valve

                                                • Pulmonic (Pulmonary) Valve

                                                  • Mitral Valve

                                                    • Aortic Valve

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • Radiography

                                                        • CT/MR Anatomy

                                                          • CT/MR

                                                            IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES

                                                            • Anatomic Right Ventricle

                                                              • Anatomic Left Ventricle

                                                                IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA

                                                                • Anatomic Right Atrium

                                                                  • Anatomic Left Atrium

                                                                    ANATOMY-BASED CARDIAC AND VALVULAR ABNORMALITIES

                                                                    • Situs Abnormalities

                                                                      • Cardiomegaly and Chamber Enlargement

                                                                        • Myocardial Calcification

                                                                          • Annular and Valvular Calcification

                                                                            Selected References

                                                                            1. Galea N et al: Right ventricular cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: normal anatomy and spectrum of pathological findings. Insights Imaging. 4(2):213-23, 2013
                                                                            2. Schallert EK et al: Describing congenital heart disease by using three-part segmental notation. Radiographics. 33(2):E33-46, 2013
                                                                            3. Debonnaire P et al: Contemporary imaging of normal mitral valve anatomy and function. Curr Opin Cardiol. 27(5):455-64, 2012
                                                                            4. Shah SS et al: Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):991-1008, 2012
                                                                            5. Gopalan D: Right heart on multidetector CT. Br J Radiol. 84 Spec No 3:S306-23, 2011
                                                                            6. Malagò R et al: Coronary artery anatomy and variants. Pediatr Radiol. 41(12):1505-15, 2011
                                                                            7. Venkatesh V et al: Normal magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 19(3):489-506, viii, 2011
                                                                            8. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010
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                                                                            References
                                                                            Tables

                                                                            Tables

                                                                            GENERAL ANATOMY AND FUNCTION

                                                                            • Anatomy

                                                                              • Function

                                                                                CARDIAC SHAPE AND ORIENTATION

                                                                                • Shape

                                                                                  • Orientation

                                                                                    CARDIAC SURFACES

                                                                                    • Posterior Surface (Base)

                                                                                      • Apex

                                                                                        • Anterior Surface

                                                                                          • Diaphragmatic Surface

                                                                                            • Right Pulmonary Surface

                                                                                              • Left Pulmonary Surface

                                                                                                CARDIAC BORDERS (MARGINS)

                                                                                                • Upper Border

                                                                                                  • Inferior (Acute) Border

                                                                                                    • Obtuse (Left) Border

                                                                                                      • Right Border

                                                                                                        CARDIAC SULCI OR GROOVES

                                                                                                        • General Features

                                                                                                          • Atrioventricular (Coronary) Sulcus or Groove

                                                                                                            • Anterior and Posterior Interventricular Sulci or Grooves

                                                                                                              CARDIAC CHAMBERS

                                                                                                              • Right Atrium

                                                                                                                • Right Ventricle

                                                                                                                  • Left Atrium

                                                                                                                    • Left Ventricle

                                                                                                                      CARDIAC SKELETON

                                                                                                                      • Anatomy

                                                                                                                        CARDIAC VALVES

                                                                                                                        • Tricuspid Valve

                                                                                                                          • Pulmonic (Pulmonary) Valve

                                                                                                                            • Mitral Valve

                                                                                                                              • Aortic Valve

                                                                                                                                IMAGING

                                                                                                                                • Radiography

                                                                                                                                  • CT/MR Anatomy

                                                                                                                                    • CT/MR

                                                                                                                                      IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES

                                                                                                                                      • Anatomic Right Ventricle

                                                                                                                                        • Anatomic Left Ventricle

                                                                                                                                          IDENTIFICATION OF MORPHOLOGIC RIGHT AND LEFT ATRIA

                                                                                                                                          • Anatomic Right Atrium

                                                                                                                                            • Anatomic Left Atrium

                                                                                                                                              ANATOMY-BASED CARDIAC AND VALVULAR ABNORMALITIES

                                                                                                                                              • Situs Abnormalities

                                                                                                                                                • Cardiomegaly and Chamber Enlargement

                                                                                                                                                  • Myocardial Calcification

                                                                                                                                                    • Annular and Valvular Calcification

                                                                                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                                                                                      1. Galea N et al: Right ventricular cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: normal anatomy and spectrum of pathological findings. Insights Imaging. 4(2):213-23, 2013
                                                                                                                                                      2. Schallert EK et al: Describing congenital heart disease by using three-part segmental notation. Radiographics. 33(2):E33-46, 2013
                                                                                                                                                      3. Debonnaire P et al: Contemporary imaging of normal mitral valve anatomy and function. Curr Opin Cardiol. 27(5):455-64, 2012
                                                                                                                                                      4. Shah SS et al: Imaging of the coronary sinus: normal anatomy and congenital abnormalities. Radiographics. 32(4):991-1008, 2012
                                                                                                                                                      5. Gopalan D: Right heart on multidetector CT. Br J Radiol. 84 Spec No 3:S306-23, 2011
                                                                                                                                                      6. Malagò R et al: Coronary artery anatomy and variants. Pediatr Radiol. 41(12):1505-15, 2011
                                                                                                                                                      7. Venkatesh V et al: Normal magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 19(3):489-506, viii, 2011
                                                                                                                                                      8. O'Leary SM et al: Imaging the pericardium: appearances on ECG-gated 64-detector row cardiac computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 83(987):194-205, 2010