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Hemangioma
Stephanie A. Bernard, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Infantile hemangioma (IH)
          • Congenital hemangioma (CH)
          • Rapidly involuting CH (RICH)
          • Noninvoluting CH (NICH)
          • Lobular capillary hemangioma (LobCpH)
        • Synonyms

          • LobCpH = pyogenic granuloma
            • Neither caused by purulence or histologically granulomatous
        • Definitions

          • Hemangioma = benign neoplastic vascular tumor composed of vessels with endothelial cellular proliferation and mitoses
            • Not vascular malformation
          • Terminology used inconsistently in adult MSK literature, in which "hemangioma" is often used to refer to what should be called slow-flow vascular malformation (venous or cavernous malformation with phleboliths) that is nonneoplastic structural anomaly of vessels

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • Associated Syndromes With Infantile Hemangioma

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            • Immunohistochemistry

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Wildgruber M et al: Vascular tumors in infants and adolescents. Insights Imaging. 10(1):30, 2019
                                        2. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                        3. Gbolahan OO et al: Spindle cell hemangioma: unusual presentation of an uncommon tumor. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 19(3):406, 2015
                                        4. ISSVA: International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification of vascular anomalies. Published April 2014. Updated May 2018. https://www.issva.org/UserFiles/file/ISSVA-Classification-2018.pdf
                                        5. Piraccini BM et al: Periungual and subungual pyogenic granuloma. Br J Dermatol. 163(5):941-53, 2010
                                        6. Giblin AV et al: Pyogenic granuloma - the quest for optimum treatment: audit of treatment of 408 cases. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 60(9):1030-5, 2007
                                        7. Dubois J et al: Soft-tissue hemangiomas in infants and children: diagnosis using Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(1):247-52, 1998
                                        8. Patrice SJ et al: Pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary hemangioma): a clinicopathologic study of 178 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 8(4):267-76, 1991
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Infantile hemangioma (IH)
                                                • Congenital hemangioma (CH)
                                                • Rapidly involuting CH (RICH)
                                                • Noninvoluting CH (NICH)
                                                • Lobular capillary hemangioma (LobCpH)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • LobCpH = pyogenic granuloma
                                                  • Neither caused by purulence or histologically granulomatous
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Hemangioma = benign neoplastic vascular tumor composed of vessels with endothelial cellular proliferation and mitoses
                                                  • Not vascular malformation
                                                • Terminology used inconsistently in adult MSK literature, in which "hemangioma" is often used to refer to what should be called slow-flow vascular malformation (venous or cavernous malformation with phleboliths) that is nonneoplastic structural anomaly of vessels

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Associated Syndromes With Infantile Hemangioma

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  • Immunohistochemistry

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Wildgruber M et al: Vascular tumors in infants and adolescents. Insights Imaging. 10(1):30, 2019
                                                                              2. Bansal AG et al: US of pediatric superficial masses of the head and neck. Radiographics. 38(4):1239-63, 2018
                                                                              3. Gbolahan OO et al: Spindle cell hemangioma: unusual presentation of an uncommon tumor. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 19(3):406, 2015
                                                                              4. ISSVA: International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification of vascular anomalies. Published April 2014. Updated May 2018. https://www.issva.org/UserFiles/file/ISSVA-Classification-2018.pdf
                                                                              5. Piraccini BM et al: Periungual and subungual pyogenic granuloma. Br J Dermatol. 163(5):941-53, 2010
                                                                              6. Giblin AV et al: Pyogenic granuloma - the quest for optimum treatment: audit of treatment of 408 cases. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 60(9):1030-5, 2007
                                                                              7. Dubois J et al: Soft-tissue hemangiomas in infants and children: diagnosis using Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(1):247-52, 1998
                                                                              8. Patrice SJ et al: Pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary hemangioma): a clinicopathologic study of 178 cases. Pediatr Dermatol. 8(4):267-76, 1991