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Hematomyelia/Nontraumatic Cord Hemorrhage
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Hematomyelia, intramedullary hemorrhage, spontaneous cord hemorrhage
          • Definitions

            • Hemorrhage within spinal cord from a variety of etiologies, primarily anticoagulant therapy, vascular, and neoplastic

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                CLINICAL ISSUES

                • Presentation

                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                    Selected References

                    1. Saliou G et al: Risk factors of hematomyelia recurrence and clinical outcome in children with intradural spinal cord arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1440-6, 2014
                    2. Madhugiri VS et al: Spinal aneurysms: clinicoradiological features and management paradigms. J Neurosurg Spine. 19(1):34-48, 2013
                    3. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                    4. Moftakhar P et al: Vascular myelopathies. Semin Neurol. 32(2):146-53, 2012
                    5. Cheng MY et al: Concomitant spinal cord and vertebral body infarction is highly associated with aortic pathology: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol. 256(9):1418-26, 2009
                    6. Dehdashti AR et al: Overview of the current role of endovascular and surgical treatment in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E8, 2009
                    7. Ebner FH et al: Intramedullary lesions of the conus medullaris: differential diagnosis and surgical management. Neurosurg Rev. 32(3):287-300; discussion 300-1, 2009
                    8. Kitagawa RS et al: Paraspinal arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):425-8, 2009
                    9. Ksendzovsky A et al: A rare case of hemangioma of infancy presenting as intraspinal hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):429-34, 2009
                    10. Leep Hunderfund AN et al: Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia). Rev Neurol Dis. 6(2):E54-61, 2009
                    11. Rourke T et al: Intraoperative, imaging and pathological features in spinal cord vasculitis. J Clin Neurosci. 16(8):1093-5, 2009
                    12. Sharma GK et al: Spontaneous intramedullary hemorrhage of spinal hemangioblastoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 65(3):E627-8; discussion E628, 2009
                    13. Sheerin F et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of acute intramedullary myelopathy: radiological differential diagnosis for the on-call radiologist. Clin Radiol. 64(1):84-94, 2009
                    14. Shiiya N et al: Anatomical pattern of feeding artery and mechanism of intraoperative spinal cord ischemia. Ann Thorac Surg. 88(3):768-71; discussion 772, 2009
                    15. Xia C et al: Pediatric cavernous malformation in the central nervous system: report of 66 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg. 45(2):105-13, 2009
                    16. Clark MT et al: Cobb syndrome: a case report and systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Neurol. 39(6):423-5, 2008
                    17. Espinosa PS et al: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia and spinal cord infarct: case report with a review of the neurological complications of HHT. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(5):484-91, 2008
                    18. Ulrich CT et al: Ependymoma of conus medullaris presenting as subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 150(2):185-8, 2008
                    19. Heuer GG et al: Acute paraparesis from hemorrhagic spinal ependymoma: diagnostic dilemma and surgical management. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 7(6):652-5, 2007
                    20. McGarvey ML et al: Management of neurologic complications of thoracic aortic surgery. J Clin Neurophysiol. 24(4):336-43, 2007
                    21. Kreppel D et al: Spinal hematoma: a literature survey with meta-analysis of 613 patients. Neurosurg Rev. 26(1):1-49, 2003
                    Related Anatomy
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                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                    References
                    Tables

                    Tables

                    KEY FACTS

                    • Terminology

                      • Imaging

                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                          • Clinical Issues

                            TERMINOLOGY

                            • Synonyms

                              • Hematomyelia, intramedullary hemorrhage, spontaneous cord hemorrhage
                            • Definitions

                              • Hemorrhage within spinal cord from a variety of etiologies, primarily anticoagulant therapy, vascular, and neoplastic

                            IMAGING

                            • General Features

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Saliou G et al: Risk factors of hematomyelia recurrence and clinical outcome in children with intradural spinal cord arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(7):1440-6, 2014
                                      2. Madhugiri VS et al: Spinal aneurysms: clinicoradiological features and management paradigms. J Neurosurg Spine. 19(1):34-48, 2013
                                      3. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                                      4. Moftakhar P et al: Vascular myelopathies. Semin Neurol. 32(2):146-53, 2012
                                      5. Cheng MY et al: Concomitant spinal cord and vertebral body infarction is highly associated with aortic pathology: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol. 256(9):1418-26, 2009
                                      6. Dehdashti AR et al: Overview of the current role of endovascular and surgical treatment in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 26(1):E8, 2009
                                      7. Ebner FH et al: Intramedullary lesions of the conus medullaris: differential diagnosis and surgical management. Neurosurg Rev. 32(3):287-300; discussion 300-1, 2009
                                      8. Kitagawa RS et al: Paraspinal arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):425-8, 2009
                                      9. Ksendzovsky A et al: A rare case of hemangioma of infancy presenting as intraspinal hemorrhage. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 3(5):429-34, 2009
                                      10. Leep Hunderfund AN et al: Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia). Rev Neurol Dis. 6(2):E54-61, 2009
                                      11. Rourke T et al: Intraoperative, imaging and pathological features in spinal cord vasculitis. J Clin Neurosci. 16(8):1093-5, 2009
                                      12. Sharma GK et al: Spontaneous intramedullary hemorrhage of spinal hemangioblastoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 65(3):E627-8; discussion E628, 2009
                                      13. Sheerin F et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of acute intramedullary myelopathy: radiological differential diagnosis for the on-call radiologist. Clin Radiol. 64(1):84-94, 2009
                                      14. Shiiya N et al: Anatomical pattern of feeding artery and mechanism of intraoperative spinal cord ischemia. Ann Thorac Surg. 88(3):768-71; discussion 772, 2009
                                      15. Xia C et al: Pediatric cavernous malformation in the central nervous system: report of 66 cases. Pediatr Neurosurg. 45(2):105-13, 2009
                                      16. Clark MT et al: Cobb syndrome: a case report and systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Neurol. 39(6):423-5, 2008
                                      17. Espinosa PS et al: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia and spinal cord infarct: case report with a review of the neurological complications of HHT. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 110(5):484-91, 2008
                                      18. Ulrich CT et al: Ependymoma of conus medullaris presenting as subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 150(2):185-8, 2008
                                      19. Heuer GG et al: Acute paraparesis from hemorrhagic spinal ependymoma: diagnostic dilemma and surgical management. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Spine. 7(6):652-5, 2007
                                      20. McGarvey ML et al: Management of neurologic complications of thoracic aortic surgery. J Clin Neurophysiol. 24(4):336-43, 2007
                                      21. Kreppel D et al: Spinal hematoma: a literature survey with meta-analysis of 613 patients. Neurosurg Rev. 26(1):1-49, 2003