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Hemifacial Spasm
H. Ric Harnsberger, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Hemifacial spasm (HFS)
              • Synonyms

                • Facial nerve vascular loop syndrome, facial nerve hyperactive dysfunction syndrome
              • Definitions

                • Vascular loop compressing facial nerve at its root exit zone within cerebellopontine angle (CPA) cistern causing hemifacial spasm

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. El Refaee E et al: Value of 3-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the offending vessel in hemifacial spasm: comparison with intraoperative high definition endoscopic visualization. Neurosurgery. 73(1):58-67; discussion 67, 2013
                                          2. Li Y et al: Surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm with zone-4 offending vessel. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 155(5):849-53, 2013
                                          3. Mehanna R et al: Movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. J Neurol Sci. 328(1-2):1-8, 2013
                                          4. Chang CS et al: Gamma Knife surgery for hemifacial spasm related to cerebellopontine angle tumors. J Neurosurg. 117 Suppl:170-4, 2012
                                          5. Garcia M et al: High-resolution 3D-constructive interference in steady-state MR imaging and 3D time-of-flight MR angiography in neurovascular compression: a comparison between 3T and 1.5T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(7):1251-6, 2012
                                          6. Rosenstengel C et al: Hemifacial spasm: conservative and surgical treatment options. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 109(41):667-73, 2012
                                          7. Dannenbaum M et al: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: long-term results from 114 operations performed without neurophysiological monitoring. J Neurosurg. 109(3):410-5, 2008
                                          8. Huh R et al: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: analyses of operative complications in 1582 consecutive patients. Surg Neurol. 69(2):153-7; discussion 157, 2008
                                          9. Kakizawa Y et al: Anatomical study of the trigeminal and facial cranial nerves with the aid of 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg. 108(3):483-90, 2008
                                          10. Takao T et al: Three-dimensional visualization of neurovascular compression: presurgical use of virtual endoscopy created from magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery. 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS139-45; discussion ONS145-6, 2008
                                          11. Tokucoglu F et al: Hemifacial spasm in correlation with electrophysiological and radiological findings. Acta Neurol Belg. 108(3):94-8, 2008
                                          12. Yuan Y et al: Microvascular decompression in patients with hemifacial spasm: report of 1200 cases. Chin Med J (Engl). 118(10):833-6, 2005
                                          13. Miwa H et al: Familial hemifacial spasm: report of cases and review of literature. J Neurol Sci. 193(2):97-102, 2002
                                          14. Jost WH et al: Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. J Neurol. 248 Suppl 1:21-4, 2001
                                          15. Lee MS et al: Clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance cisternography in patients having hemifacial spasm. Yonsei Med J. 42(4):390-4, 2001
                                          16. Yamakami I et al: Preoperative assessment of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm using constructive interference in steady state-three-dimensional Fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 40(11):545-55; discussion 555-6, 2000
                                          17. Møller AR: Vascular compression of cranial nerves: II: pathophysiology. Neurol Res. 21(5):439-43, 1999
                                          18. Mitsuoka H et al: Delineation of small nerves and blood vessels with three-dimensional fast spin-echo MR imaging: comparison of presurgical and surgical findings in patients with hemifacial spasm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(10):1823-9, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Hemifacial spasm (HFS)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Facial nerve vascular loop syndrome, facial nerve hyperactive dysfunction syndrome
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Vascular loop compressing facial nerve at its root exit zone within cerebellopontine angle (CPA) cistern causing hemifacial spasm

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. El Refaee E et al: Value of 3-dimensional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the offending vessel in hemifacial spasm: comparison with intraoperative high definition endoscopic visualization. Neurosurgery. 73(1):58-67; discussion 67, 2013
                                                                                  2. Li Y et al: Surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm with zone-4 offending vessel. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 155(5):849-53, 2013
                                                                                  3. Mehanna R et al: Movement disorders in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. J Neurol Sci. 328(1-2):1-8, 2013
                                                                                  4. Chang CS et al: Gamma Knife surgery for hemifacial spasm related to cerebellopontine angle tumors. J Neurosurg. 117 Suppl:170-4, 2012
                                                                                  5. Garcia M et al: High-resolution 3D-constructive interference in steady-state MR imaging and 3D time-of-flight MR angiography in neurovascular compression: a comparison between 3T and 1.5T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(7):1251-6, 2012
                                                                                  6. Rosenstengel C et al: Hemifacial spasm: conservative and surgical treatment options. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 109(41):667-73, 2012
                                                                                  7. Dannenbaum M et al: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: long-term results from 114 operations performed without neurophysiological monitoring. J Neurosurg. 109(3):410-5, 2008
                                                                                  8. Huh R et al: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: analyses of operative complications in 1582 consecutive patients. Surg Neurol. 69(2):153-7; discussion 157, 2008
                                                                                  9. Kakizawa Y et al: Anatomical study of the trigeminal and facial cranial nerves with the aid of 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg. 108(3):483-90, 2008
                                                                                  10. Takao T et al: Three-dimensional visualization of neurovascular compression: presurgical use of virtual endoscopy created from magnetic resonance imaging. Neurosurgery. 63(1 Suppl 1):ONS139-45; discussion ONS145-6, 2008
                                                                                  11. Tokucoglu F et al: Hemifacial spasm in correlation with electrophysiological and radiological findings. Acta Neurol Belg. 108(3):94-8, 2008
                                                                                  12. Yuan Y et al: Microvascular decompression in patients with hemifacial spasm: report of 1200 cases. Chin Med J (Engl). 118(10):833-6, 2005
                                                                                  13. Miwa H et al: Familial hemifacial spasm: report of cases and review of literature. J Neurol Sci. 193(2):97-102, 2002
                                                                                  14. Jost WH et al: Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. J Neurol. 248 Suppl 1:21-4, 2001
                                                                                  15. Lee MS et al: Clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance cisternography in patients having hemifacial spasm. Yonsei Med J. 42(4):390-4, 2001
                                                                                  16. Yamakami I et al: Preoperative assessment of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm using constructive interference in steady state-three-dimensional Fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 40(11):545-55; discussion 555-6, 2000
                                                                                  17. Møller AR: Vascular compression of cranial nerves: II: pathophysiology. Neurol Res. 21(5):439-43, 1999
                                                                                  18. Mitsuoka H et al: Delineation of small nerves and blood vessels with three-dimensional fast spin-echo MR imaging: comparison of presurgical and surgical findings in patients with hemifacial spasm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(10):1823-9, 1998