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Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma
David Burrowes, MD; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Liver hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma
            • Definitions

              • Benign tumor composed of dilated, endothelial-lined vascular channels lined by single layer of endothelial cells supported by thin fibrous stroma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Burrowes DP et al: Characterization of focal liver masses: a multicenter comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance Imaging. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2021
                                              2. Burrowes DP et al: Contrast-enhanced US approach to the diagnosis of focal liver masses. Radiographics. 37(5):1388-400, 2017
                                              3. Won HJ et al: Changes in echogenicity of hepatic hemangiomas during the Valsalva maneuver. J Clin Ultrasound. 45(6):328-31, 2017
                                              4. Quaia E: The real capabilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the characterization of solid focal liver lesions. Eur Radiol. 21(3):457-62, 2011
                                              5. Wakui N et al: Diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma by parametric imaging using sonazoid-enhanced US. Hepatogastroenterology. 58(110-111):1431-5, 2011
                                              6. Seitz K et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in clinical practice (DEGUM multicenter trial): CEUS vs. MRI--a prospective comparison in 269 patients. Ultraschall Med. 31(5):492-9, 2010
                                              7. Sugimoto K et al: Computer-aided diagnosis for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the liver. World J Radiol. 2(6):215-23, 2010
                                              8. Choi JC et al: Discrete hypoechoic ring in hepatic cavernous hemangioma resembling a malignant tumor: correlation with histologic features. Gut Liver. 3(3):226-30, 2009
                                              9. Kamaya A et al: Hypervascular liver lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 30(5):387-407, 2009
                                              10. Kim SH et al: Computer-aided image analysis of focal hepatic lesions in ultrasonography: preliminary results. Abdom Imaging. 34(2):183-91, 2009
                                              11. Bartolotta TV et al: Characterization of benign hepatic tumors arising in fatty liver with SonoVue and pulse inversion US. Abdom Imaging. 32(1):84-91, 2007
                                              12. Jang HJ et al: Hepatic hemangioma: atypical appearances on CT, MR imaging, and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):135-41, 2003
                                              13. Okano H et al: "Variable echo sign" (ultrasonographical alteration of echogenicity) in cavernous hepatic hemangioma. Int J Oncol. 19(2):337-40, 2001
                                              14. Perkins AB et al: Color and power Doppler sonography of liver hemangiomas: a dream unfulfilled? J Clin Ultrasound. 28(4):159-65, 2000
                                              15. Vilgrain V et al: Imaging of atypical hemangiomas of the liver with pathologic correlation. RadioGraphics. 20: 379-97, 2000
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Liver hemangioma, capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Benign tumor composed of dilated, endothelial-lined vascular channels lined by single layer of endothelial cells supported by thin fibrous stroma

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Burrowes DP et al: Characterization of focal liver masses: a multicenter comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance Imaging. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2021
                                                                                          2. Burrowes DP et al: Contrast-enhanced US approach to the diagnosis of focal liver masses. Radiographics. 37(5):1388-400, 2017
                                                                                          3. Won HJ et al: Changes in echogenicity of hepatic hemangiomas during the Valsalva maneuver. J Clin Ultrasound. 45(6):328-31, 2017
                                                                                          4. Quaia E: The real capabilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the characterization of solid focal liver lesions. Eur Radiol. 21(3):457-62, 2011
                                                                                          5. Wakui N et al: Diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma by parametric imaging using sonazoid-enhanced US. Hepatogastroenterology. 58(110-111):1431-5, 2011
                                                                                          6. Seitz K et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the characterization of focal liver lesions in clinical practice (DEGUM multicenter trial): CEUS vs. MRI--a prospective comparison in 269 patients. Ultraschall Med. 31(5):492-9, 2010
                                                                                          7. Sugimoto K et al: Computer-aided diagnosis for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the liver. World J Radiol. 2(6):215-23, 2010
                                                                                          8. Choi JC et al: Discrete hypoechoic ring in hepatic cavernous hemangioma resembling a malignant tumor: correlation with histologic features. Gut Liver. 3(3):226-30, 2009
                                                                                          9. Kamaya A et al: Hypervascular liver lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 30(5):387-407, 2009
                                                                                          10. Kim SH et al: Computer-aided image analysis of focal hepatic lesions in ultrasonography: preliminary results. Abdom Imaging. 34(2):183-91, 2009
                                                                                          11. Bartolotta TV et al: Characterization of benign hepatic tumors arising in fatty liver with SonoVue and pulse inversion US. Abdom Imaging. 32(1):84-91, 2007
                                                                                          12. Jang HJ et al: Hepatic hemangioma: atypical appearances on CT, MR imaging, and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):135-41, 2003
                                                                                          13. Okano H et al: "Variable echo sign" (ultrasonographical alteration of echogenicity) in cavernous hepatic hemangioma. Int J Oncol. 19(2):337-40, 2001
                                                                                          14. Perkins AB et al: Color and power Doppler sonography of liver hemangiomas: a dream unfulfilled? J Clin Ultrasound. 28(4):159-65, 2000
                                                                                          15. Vilgrain V et al: Imaging of atypical hemangiomas of the liver with pathologic correlation. RadioGraphics. 20: 379-97, 2000