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Hepatic Cyst
Atif Zaheer, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Simple hepatic or bile duct cyst
          • Definitions

            • Benign, congenital, developmental lesion derived from biliary endothelium

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Reissis Y et al: Hemorrhagic hepatic cysts: diagnosis and management. Am Surg. 86(3):e127-9, 2020
                                          2. Kohno S et al: Imaging findings of hemorrhagic hepatic cysts with enhancing mural nodules. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1205-12, 2019
                                          3. Torbenson MS: Hamartomas and malformations of the liver. Semin Diagn Pathol. 36(1):39-47, 2019
                                          4. Mavilia MG et al: Differentiating cystic liver lesions: a review of imaging modalities, diagnosis and management. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 6(2):208-16, 2018
                                          5. Ansari-Gilani K et al: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of three cases and review of imaging features. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 5(1):75-8, 2017
                                          6. Long J et al: Acute Budd-Chiari syndrome due to a simple liver cyst. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 96(1):109E-11E, 2014
                                          7. Kinjo N et al: Large simple hepatic cysts leading to gastric fundal varices in a noncirrhotic patient. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 104(11):449-55, 2013
                                          8. Fischer PE et al: Laparoscopic management of a giant hepatic cyst with fibrin glue fixation of the omentum. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 21(5):e273-4, 2011
                                          9. Qiu JG et al: Laparoscopic fenestration vs open fenestration in patients with congenital hepatic cysts: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 17(28):3359-65, 2011
                                          10. Goodman MD et al: Laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst. JSLS. 13(1):96-100, 2009
                                          11. Veigel MC et al: Fibropolycystic liver disease in children. Pediatr Radiol. 39(4):317-27, 2009
                                          12. Fukunaga N et al: Hepatobiliary cystadenoma exhibiting morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst shown by 11-year follow up imagings. World J Surg Oncol. 6:129, 2008
                                          13. Sharma S et al: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: an increasingly diagnosed condition. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 7(6):581-9, 2008
                                          14. Martin DR et al: Imaging of benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(4):785-802, vi-vii, 2001
                                          15. Mortelé KJ et al: Cystic focal liver lesions in the adult: differential CT and MR imaging features. Radiographics. 21(4):895-910, 2001
                                          16. Casillas VJ et al: Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhagic hepatic lesions. Radiographics. 20(2):367-78, 2000
                                          17. Horton KM et al: CT and MR imaging of benign hepatic and biliary tumors. Radiographics. 19(2):431-51, 1999
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Simple hepatic or bile duct cyst
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Benign, congenital, developmental lesion derived from biliary endothelium

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Reissis Y et al: Hemorrhagic hepatic cysts: diagnosis and management. Am Surg. 86(3):e127-9, 2020
                                                                                  2. Kohno S et al: Imaging findings of hemorrhagic hepatic cysts with enhancing mural nodules. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1205-12, 2019
                                                                                  3. Torbenson MS: Hamartomas and malformations of the liver. Semin Diagn Pathol. 36(1):39-47, 2019
                                                                                  4. Mavilia MG et al: Differentiating cystic liver lesions: a review of imaging modalities, diagnosis and management. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 6(2):208-16, 2018
                                                                                  5. Ansari-Gilani K et al: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: report of three cases and review of imaging features. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 5(1):75-8, 2017
                                                                                  6. Long J et al: Acute Budd-Chiari syndrome due to a simple liver cyst. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 96(1):109E-11E, 2014
                                                                                  7. Kinjo N et al: Large simple hepatic cysts leading to gastric fundal varices in a noncirrhotic patient. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 104(11):449-55, 2013
                                                                                  8. Fischer PE et al: Laparoscopic management of a giant hepatic cyst with fibrin glue fixation of the omentum. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 21(5):e273-4, 2011
                                                                                  9. Qiu JG et al: Laparoscopic fenestration vs open fenestration in patients with congenital hepatic cysts: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 17(28):3359-65, 2011
                                                                                  10. Goodman MD et al: Laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst. JSLS. 13(1):96-100, 2009
                                                                                  11. Veigel MC et al: Fibropolycystic liver disease in children. Pediatr Radiol. 39(4):317-27, 2009
                                                                                  12. Fukunaga N et al: Hepatobiliary cystadenoma exhibiting morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst shown by 11-year follow up imagings. World J Surg Oncol. 6:129, 2008
                                                                                  13. Sharma S et al: Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: an increasingly diagnosed condition. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 7(6):581-9, 2008
                                                                                  14. Martin DR et al: Imaging of benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 9(4):785-802, vi-vii, 2001
                                                                                  15. Mortelé KJ et al: Cystic focal liver lesions in the adult: differential CT and MR imaging features. Radiographics. 21(4):895-910, 2001
                                                                                  16. Casillas VJ et al: Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhagic hepatic lesions. Radiographics. 20(2):367-78, 2000
                                                                                  17. Horton KM et al: CT and MR imaging of benign hepatic and biliary tumors. Radiographics. 19(2):431-51, 1999