link
Bookmarks
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
9
11
0

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Hepatic encephalopathy (HE)
              • Acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE)
              • Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE)
            • Synonyms

              • Hepatic coma
            • Definitions

              • Functional, potentially reversible clinical syndrome during acute or chronic liver disease
              • Characterized by psychiatric, cognitive, and motor components

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Su YY et al: PET and MR imaging of neuroinflammation in hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis. 30(1):31-45, 2015
                                            2. Alonso J et al: Brain magnetic resonance in hepatic encephalopathy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 35(2):136-52, 2014
                                            3. Butterworth RF: Hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 125:589-602, 2014
                                            4. Bathla G et al: MRI and CT appearances in metabolic encephalopathies due to systemic diseases in adults. Clin Radiol. 68(6):545-54, 2013
                                            5. McPhail MJ et al: Brain imaging and hepatic encephalopathy. Clin Liver Dis. 16(1):57-72, 2012
                                            6. Atluri DK et al: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 1(2):77-86, 2011
                                            7. Pinarbasi B et al: Are acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and hepatic myelopathy reversible? J Clin Gastroenterol. 43(2):176-81, 2009
                                            8. Rovira A et al: MR imaging findings in hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(9):1612-21, 2008
                                            9. Saksena S et al: Cerebral diffusion tensor imaging and in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 23(7 Pt 2):e111-9, 2008
                                            10. Sugimoto R et al: Value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for quantification of low-grade hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 103(6):1413-20, 2008
                                            11. Lai PH et al: Hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):1109-15, 1999
                                            12. Bryan RN et al: A new clinical application of MR spectroscopy in hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(9):1593-4, 1998
                                            13. Lee J et al: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration: MR and pathologic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(3):485-7, 1998
                                            14. Vymazal J et al: T1 and T2 alterations in the brains of patients with hepatic cirrhosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(2):333-6, 1996
                                            Related Anatomy
                                            Loading...
                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
                                            Loading...
                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Hepatic encephalopathy (HE)
                                                        • Acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE)
                                                        • Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Hepatic coma
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Functional, potentially reversible clinical syndrome during acute or chronic liver disease
                                                        • Characterized by psychiatric, cognitive, and motor components

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Su YY et al: PET and MR imaging of neuroinflammation in hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis. 30(1):31-45, 2015
                                                                                      2. Alonso J et al: Brain magnetic resonance in hepatic encephalopathy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 35(2):136-52, 2014
                                                                                      3. Butterworth RF: Hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 125:589-602, 2014
                                                                                      4. Bathla G et al: MRI and CT appearances in metabolic encephalopathies due to systemic diseases in adults. Clin Radiol. 68(6):545-54, 2013
                                                                                      5. McPhail MJ et al: Brain imaging and hepatic encephalopathy. Clin Liver Dis. 16(1):57-72, 2012
                                                                                      6. Atluri DK et al: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 1(2):77-86, 2011
                                                                                      7. Pinarbasi B et al: Are acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and hepatic myelopathy reversible? J Clin Gastroenterol. 43(2):176-81, 2009
                                                                                      8. Rovira A et al: MR imaging findings in hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(9):1612-21, 2008
                                                                                      9. Saksena S et al: Cerebral diffusion tensor imaging and in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 23(7 Pt 2):e111-9, 2008
                                                                                      10. Sugimoto R et al: Value of the apparent diffusion coefficient for quantification of low-grade hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 103(6):1413-20, 2008
                                                                                      11. Lai PH et al: Hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 172(4):1109-15, 1999
                                                                                      12. Bryan RN et al: A new clinical application of MR spectroscopy in hepatic encephalopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(9):1593-4, 1998
                                                                                      13. Lee J et al: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration: MR and pathologic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(3):485-7, 1998
                                                                                      14. Vymazal J et al: T1 and T2 alterations in the brains of patients with hepatic cirrhosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(2):333-6, 1996