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Hepatic Metastases and Lymphoma
Atif Zaheer, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Lymphoma: Neoplasm of lymphoid tissues
          • Metastases: Malignant spread of neoplasm to hepatic parenchyma

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Fujita N et al: Hyperintense liver masses at hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: imaging appearances and clinical importance. Radiographics. 40(1):72-94, 2020
                                          2. Ippolito D et al: Diagnostic approach in hepatic lymphoma: radiological imaging findings and literature review. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 146(6):1545-58, 2020
                                          3. Granata V et al: Diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI versus multidetector CT in the assessment of colorectal liver metastases compared to hepatic resection. BMC Gastroenterol. 19(1):129, 2019
                                          4. Arora A et al: Additional radiologic clue to diagnosing hepatic lymphoma. Radiographics. 35(7):2149-50, 2015
                                          5. Nishiwada S et al: Comparison between percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and surgical hepatectomy focusing on local disease control rate for colorectal liver metastases. Hepatogastroenterology. 61(130):436-41, 2014
                                          6. Shin DS et al: Surgical resection of a malignant liver lesion: what the surgeon wants the radiologist to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(1):W21-33, 2014
                                          7. Abu Hilal M et al: Oncological efficiency analysis of laparoscopic liver resection for primary and metastatic cancer: a single-center UK experience. Arch Surg. 147(1):42-8, 2012
                                          8. Park SY et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases after curative resection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):2, 2012
                                          9. Wang CC et al: An update on chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 18(1):25-33, 2012
                                          10. Boonsirikamchai P et al: CT findings of response and recurrence, independent of change in tumor size, in colorectal liver metastasis treated with bevacizumab. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):W1060-6, 2011
                                          11. Khajanchee YS et al: Hepatic resection vs minimally invasive radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases: a Markov analysis. Arch Surg. 146(12):1416-23, 2011
                                          12. Khan MS et al: Therapeutic management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer. 18 Suppl 1:S53-74, 2011
                                          13. Misiakos EP et al: Current treatment for colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 17(36):4067-75, 2011
                                          14. Xu LH et al: Imaging diagnosis of colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 17(42):4654-9, 2011
                                          15. Zani S et al: A role for hepatic metastasectomy in stage IV melanoma and breast cancer: reestablishing the surgical modality. Oncology (Williston Park). 25(12):1158-64, 2011
                                          16. Adam R et al: Patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases: is there a possibility of cure?. J Clin Oncol. 27(11):1829-35, 2009
                                          17. Mortensen MB et al: Laparoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer patients. Surg Endosc. 2738-42, 2009
                                          18. Bipat S et al: Colorectal liver metastases: CT, MR imaging, and PET for diagnosis--meta-analysis. Radiology. 237(1):123-31, 2005
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Lymphoma: Neoplasm of lymphoid tissues
                                                  • Metastases: Malignant spread of neoplasm to hepatic parenchyma

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Fujita N et al: Hyperintense liver masses at hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: imaging appearances and clinical importance. Radiographics. 40(1):72-94, 2020
                                                                                  2. Ippolito D et al: Diagnostic approach in hepatic lymphoma: radiological imaging findings and literature review. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 146(6):1545-58, 2020
                                                                                  3. Granata V et al: Diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI versus multidetector CT in the assessment of colorectal liver metastases compared to hepatic resection. BMC Gastroenterol. 19(1):129, 2019
                                                                                  4. Arora A et al: Additional radiologic clue to diagnosing hepatic lymphoma. Radiographics. 35(7):2149-50, 2015
                                                                                  5. Nishiwada S et al: Comparison between percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and surgical hepatectomy focusing on local disease control rate for colorectal liver metastases. Hepatogastroenterology. 61(130):436-41, 2014
                                                                                  6. Shin DS et al: Surgical resection of a malignant liver lesion: what the surgeon wants the radiologist to know. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(1):W21-33, 2014
                                                                                  7. Abu Hilal M et al: Oncological efficiency analysis of laparoscopic liver resection for primary and metastatic cancer: a single-center UK experience. Arch Surg. 147(1):42-8, 2012
                                                                                  8. Park SY et al: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases after curative resection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):2, 2012
                                                                                  9. Wang CC et al: An update on chemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 18(1):25-33, 2012
                                                                                  10. Boonsirikamchai P et al: CT findings of response and recurrence, independent of change in tumor size, in colorectal liver metastasis treated with bevacizumab. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):W1060-6, 2011
                                                                                  11. Khajanchee YS et al: Hepatic resection vs minimally invasive radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases: a Markov analysis. Arch Surg. 146(12):1416-23, 2011
                                                                                  12. Khan MS et al: Therapeutic management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer. 18 Suppl 1:S53-74, 2011
                                                                                  13. Misiakos EP et al: Current treatment for colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 17(36):4067-75, 2011
                                                                                  14. Xu LH et al: Imaging diagnosis of colorectal liver metastases. World J Gastroenterol. 17(42):4654-9, 2011
                                                                                  15. Zani S et al: A role for hepatic metastasectomy in stage IV melanoma and breast cancer: reestablishing the surgical modality. Oncology (Williston Park). 25(12):1158-64, 2011
                                                                                  16. Adam R et al: Patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases: is there a possibility of cure?. J Clin Oncol. 27(11):1829-35, 2009
                                                                                  17. Mortensen MB et al: Laparoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer patients. Surg Endosc. 2738-42, 2009
                                                                                  18. Bipat S et al: Colorectal liver metastases: CT, MR imaging, and PET for diagnosis--meta-analysis. Radiology. 237(1):123-31, 2005