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Hepatic Metastases
Hee Sun Park, MD, PhD; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Malignant spread of neoplasm to hepatic parenchyma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Sofue K et al: Does Gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0T MRI in addition to 64-detector-row contrast-enhanced CT provide better diagnostic performance and change the therapeutic strategy for the preoperative evaluation of colorectal liver metastases? Eur Radiol. 24(10):2532-9, 2014
                                          2. Westwood M et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using SonoVue® (sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles) compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the characterisation of focal liver lesions and detection of liver metastases: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess. 17(16):1-243, 2013
                                          3. Lefort T et al: Correlation and agreement between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and perfusion computed tomography for assessment of liver metastases from endocrine tumors: normalization enhances correlation. Ultrasound Med Biol. 38(6):953-61, 2012
                                          4. Macrì A et al: Doppler perfusion index and colorectal hepatic metastases: personal experience and review of the literature. Hepatogastroenterology. 59(115):731-3, 2012
                                          5. Salvatore V et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: recent advances. Curr Pharm Des. 18(15):2236-52, 2012
                                          6. Schulz A et al: Impact of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound on operation strategy in case of colorectal liver metastasis. Acta Radiol. 53(10):1081-7, 2012
                                          7. Takahashi M et al: Contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography using perfluorobutane microbubbles for the enumeration of colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg. 99(9):1271-7, 2012
                                          8. Leen E et al: Potential value of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography during partial hepatectomy for metastases: an essential investigation before resection? Ann Surg. 243(2):236-40, 2006
                                          9. Oktar SO et al: Doppler sonographic evaluation of hemodynamic changes in colorectal liver metastases relative to liver size. J Ultrasound Med. 25(5):575-82, 2006
                                          10. Rafaelsen SR et al: Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol. 39(8):761-5, 2004
                                          11. von Herbay A et al: Real-time imaging with the sonographic contrast agent SonoVue: differentiation between benign and malignant hepatic lesions. J Ultrasound Med. 23(12):1557-68, 2004
                                          12. Eberhardt SC et al: Utility of sonography for small hepatic lesions found on computed tomography in patients with cancer. J Ultrasound Med. 22(4):335-43; quiz 345-6, 2003
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Malignant spread of neoplasm to hepatic parenchyma

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Sofue K et al: Does Gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0T MRI in addition to 64-detector-row contrast-enhanced CT provide better diagnostic performance and change the therapeutic strategy for the preoperative evaluation of colorectal liver metastases? Eur Radiol. 24(10):2532-9, 2014
                                                                                  2. Westwood M et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using SonoVue® (sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles) compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the characterisation of focal liver lesions and detection of liver metastases: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess. 17(16):1-243, 2013
                                                                                  3. Lefort T et al: Correlation and agreement between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and perfusion computed tomography for assessment of liver metastases from endocrine tumors: normalization enhances correlation. Ultrasound Med Biol. 38(6):953-61, 2012
                                                                                  4. Macrì A et al: Doppler perfusion index and colorectal hepatic metastases: personal experience and review of the literature. Hepatogastroenterology. 59(115):731-3, 2012
                                                                                  5. Salvatore V et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for liver imaging: recent advances. Curr Pharm Des. 18(15):2236-52, 2012
                                                                                  6. Schulz A et al: Impact of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound on operation strategy in case of colorectal liver metastasis. Acta Radiol. 53(10):1081-7, 2012
                                                                                  7. Takahashi M et al: Contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography using perfluorobutane microbubbles for the enumeration of colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg. 99(9):1271-7, 2012
                                                                                  8. Leen E et al: Potential value of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasonography during partial hepatectomy for metastases: an essential investigation before resection? Ann Surg. 243(2):236-40, 2006
                                                                                  9. Oktar SO et al: Doppler sonographic evaluation of hemodynamic changes in colorectal liver metastases relative to liver size. J Ultrasound Med. 25(5):575-82, 2006
                                                                                  10. Rafaelsen SR et al: Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol. 39(8):761-5, 2004
                                                                                  11. von Herbay A et al: Real-time imaging with the sonographic contrast agent SonoVue: differentiation between benign and malignant hepatic lesions. J Ultrasound Med. 23(12):1557-68, 2004
                                                                                  12. Eberhardt SC et al: Utility of sonography for small hepatic lesions found on computed tomography in patients with cancer. J Ultrasound Med. 22(4):335-43; quiz 345-6, 2003