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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Eric L. Yuan, MD; Robert M Morgan, Jr., MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
              • Primary tumor of liver hepatocytes that develops in setting of chronic liver disease
              • Risk factors: Cirrhosis, chronic HBV infection, chronic HCV infection, hemachromatosis, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1, type II diabetes, fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

          IMAGING

          • F-18 FDG PET Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Ferlay J et al: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 136(5):E359-86, 2015
                            2. Mu X et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma originates from hepatocytes and not from the progenitor/biliary compartment. J Clin Invest. 125(10):3891-903, 2015
                            3. Reynolds AR et al: Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: what radiologists need to know. Radiographics. 35(2):371-86, 2015
                            4. Hennedige T et al: Imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: diagnosis, staging and treatment monitoring. Cancer Imaging. 12:530-47, 2013
                            5. Parente DB et al: MR imaging of hypervascular lesions in the cirrhotic liver: a diagnostic dilemma. Radiographics. 32(3):767-87, 2012
                            6. El-Serag HB: Hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 365(12):1118-27, 2011
                            7. Sacks A et al: Value of PET/CT in the management of primary hepatobiliary tumors, part 2. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(2):W260-5, 2011
                            8. Kawaoka T et al: FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Res. 39(2):134-42, 2009
                            9. Iwata Y et al: Clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of liver tumors. Ann Nucl Med. 14(2):121-6, 2000
                            10. Khan MA et al: Positron emission tomography scanning in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 32(5):792-7, 2000
                            11. Schröder H et al: Isolation and determination of a hydroxylated metabolite of sulphapyridine from human urine. Acta Pharm Suec. 10(4):263-8, 1973
                            12. Kew MC et al: Diagnosis of primary cancer of the liver. Br Med J. 4(5784):408-11, 1971
                            13. Jarcho S: Percussion of the heart contrasted with roentgen examination (Williams, 1899). Am J Cardiol. 23(6):845-9, 1969
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
                                        • Primary tumor of liver hepatocytes that develops in setting of chronic liver disease
                                        • Risk factors: Cirrhosis, chronic HBV infection, chronic HCV infection, hemachromatosis, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1, type II diabetes, fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

                                    IMAGING

                                    • F-18 FDG PET Findings

                                      • CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Treatment

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Ferlay J et al: Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 136(5):E359-86, 2015
                                                      2. Mu X et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma originates from hepatocytes and not from the progenitor/biliary compartment. J Clin Invest. 125(10):3891-903, 2015
                                                      3. Reynolds AR et al: Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma: what radiologists need to know. Radiographics. 35(2):371-86, 2015
                                                      4. Hennedige T et al: Imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: diagnosis, staging and treatment monitoring. Cancer Imaging. 12:530-47, 2013
                                                      5. Parente DB et al: MR imaging of hypervascular lesions in the cirrhotic liver: a diagnostic dilemma. Radiographics. 32(3):767-87, 2012
                                                      6. El-Serag HB: Hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 365(12):1118-27, 2011
                                                      7. Sacks A et al: Value of PET/CT in the management of primary hepatobiliary tumors, part 2. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(2):W260-5, 2011
                                                      8. Kawaoka T et al: FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Res. 39(2):134-42, 2009
                                                      9. Iwata Y et al: Clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the diagnosis of liver tumors. Ann Nucl Med. 14(2):121-6, 2000
                                                      10. Khan MA et al: Positron emission tomography scanning in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 32(5):792-7, 2000
                                                      11. Schröder H et al: Isolation and determination of a hydroxylated metabolite of sulphapyridine from human urine. Acta Pharm Suec. 10(4):263-8, 1973
                                                      12. Kew MC et al: Diagnosis of primary cancer of the liver. Br Med J. 4(5784):408-11, 1971
                                                      13. Jarcho S: Percussion of the heart contrasted with roentgen examination (Williams, 1899). Am J Cardiol. 23(6):845-9, 1969