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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): Malignant tumor of hepatocytes
            • Hepatobiliary agent (HBA): MR contrast agent with substantial hepatocyte uptake & retention with biliary excretion

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • MR Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. D'Souza AM et al: Clinical heterogeneity of pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 67(6):e28307, 2020
                                    2. Schooler GR et al: pediatric hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and other hepatic neoplasms: consensus imaging recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. Radiology. 296(3):493-7, 2020
                                    3. Ludwig DR et al: Diagnostic performance of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2017 in predicting malignant liver lesions in pediatric patients: a preliminary study. Pediatr Radiol. 49(6):746-58, 2019
                                    4. Weeda VB et al: Is hepatocellular carcinoma the same disease in children and adults? Comparison of histology, molecular background, and treatment in pediatric and adult patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 66(2):e27475, 2019
                                    5. Towbin AJ et al: 2017 PRETEXT: radiologic staging system for primary hepatic malignancies of childhood revised for the Paediatric Hepatic International Tumour Trial (PHITT). Pediatr Radiol. 48(4):536-54, 2018
                                    6. Lau CS et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in the pediatric population: a population based clinical outcomes study involving 257 patients from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result (SEER) database (1973-2011). HPB Surg. 2015:670728, 2015
                                    7. Allan BJ et al: A review of 218 pediatric cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):166-71; discussion 171, 2014
                                    8. McAteer JP et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in children: epidemiology and the impact of regional lymphadenectomy on surgical outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 48(11):2194-201, 2013
                                    9. Chung EM et al: From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Part 2. Malignant tumors. Radiographics. 31(2):483-507, 2011
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): Malignant tumor of hepatocytes
                                              • Hepatobiliary agent (HBA): MR contrast agent with substantial hepatocyte uptake & retention with biliary excretion

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. D'Souza AM et al: Clinical heterogeneity of pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 67(6):e28307, 2020
                                                                      2. Schooler GR et al: pediatric hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and other hepatic neoplasms: consensus imaging recommendations from American College of Radiology Pediatric Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) Working Group. Radiology. 296(3):493-7, 2020
                                                                      3. Ludwig DR et al: Diagnostic performance of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2017 in predicting malignant liver lesions in pediatric patients: a preliminary study. Pediatr Radiol. 49(6):746-58, 2019
                                                                      4. Weeda VB et al: Is hepatocellular carcinoma the same disease in children and adults? Comparison of histology, molecular background, and treatment in pediatric and adult patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 66(2):e27475, 2019
                                                                      5. Towbin AJ et al: 2017 PRETEXT: radiologic staging system for primary hepatic malignancies of childhood revised for the Paediatric Hepatic International Tumour Trial (PHITT). Pediatr Radiol. 48(4):536-54, 2018
                                                                      6. Lau CS et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in the pediatric population: a population based clinical outcomes study involving 257 patients from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result (SEER) database (1973-2011). HPB Surg. 2015:670728, 2015
                                                                      7. Allan BJ et al: A review of 218 pediatric cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):166-71; discussion 171, 2014
                                                                      8. McAteer JP et al: Hepatocellular carcinoma in children: epidemiology and the impact of regional lymphadenectomy on surgical outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 48(11):2194-201, 2013
                                                                      9. Chung EM et al: From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Part 2. Malignant tumors. Radiographics. 31(2):483-507, 2011