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Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
Kyung Soo Lee, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)
              • Definitions

                • Triad of arterial oxygenation defect, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation, and liver disease (often chronic)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Angiographic Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Chen YA et al: CT scan does not differentiate patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome from other patients with liver disease. PLoS One. 11(7):e0158637, 2016
                                              2. Chawla A et al: CT pulmonary angiography features of a hepatopulmonary syndrome. Korean J Radiol. 16(4):951-2, 2015
                                              3. Chung S et al: Aggravation of hepatopulmonary syndrome after sildenafil treatment in a patient with coexisting portopulmonary hypertension. Korean Circ J. 45(1):77-80, 2015
                                              4. Zhao H et al: Accurate measurement of the normality values of macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan in hepatopulmonary syndrome. Ann Nucl Med. 29(8):754-5, 2015
                                              5. Grace JA et al: Hepatopulmonary syndrome: update on recent advances in pathophysiology, investigation, and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 28(2):213-9, 2013
                                              6. Kim YK et al: Thoracic complications of liver cirrhosis: radiologic findings. Radiographics. 29(3):825-37, 2009
                                              7. Leung AN: Case 63: hepatopulmonary syndrome. Radiology. 229(1):64-7, 2003
                                              8. Lee KN et al: Hypoxemia and liver cirrhosis (hepatopulmonary syndrome) in eight patients: comparison of the central and peripheral pulmonary vasculature. Radiology. 211(2):549-53, 1999
                                              9. McAdams HP et al: The hepatopulmonary syndrome: radiologic findings in 10 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(6):1379-85, 1996
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Triad of arterial oxygenation defect, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation, and liver disease (often chronic)

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Chen YA et al: CT scan does not differentiate patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome from other patients with liver disease. PLoS One. 11(7):e0158637, 2016
                                                                                          2. Chawla A et al: CT pulmonary angiography features of a hepatopulmonary syndrome. Korean J Radiol. 16(4):951-2, 2015
                                                                                          3. Chung S et al: Aggravation of hepatopulmonary syndrome after sildenafil treatment in a patient with coexisting portopulmonary hypertension. Korean Circ J. 45(1):77-80, 2015
                                                                                          4. Zhao H et al: Accurate measurement of the normality values of macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan in hepatopulmonary syndrome. Ann Nucl Med. 29(8):754-5, 2015
                                                                                          5. Grace JA et al: Hepatopulmonary syndrome: update on recent advances in pathophysiology, investigation, and treatment. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 28(2):213-9, 2013
                                                                                          6. Kim YK et al: Thoracic complications of liver cirrhosis: radiologic findings. Radiographics. 29(3):825-37, 2009
                                                                                          7. Leung AN: Case 63: hepatopulmonary syndrome. Radiology. 229(1):64-7, 2003
                                                                                          8. Lee KN et al: Hypoxemia and liver cirrhosis (hepatopulmonary syndrome) in eight patients: comparison of the central and peripheral pulmonary vasculature. Radiology. 211(2):549-53, 1999
                                                                                          9. McAdams HP et al: The hepatopulmonary syndrome: radiologic findings in 10 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(6):1379-85, 1996