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Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
John P. Lichtenberger, III, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)
              • Definitions

                • Syndrome composed of triad
                  • Intrapulmonary vascular dilatation
                  •  alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient on room air
                  • Liver disease

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Echocardiographic Findings

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Bansal K et al: Hepatopulmonary Syndrome 2021
                                              2. Zhao H et al: Technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan for diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome: a prospective study comparing brain uptake and whole-body uptake. World J Gastroenterol. 26(10):1088-97, 2020
                                              3. Folador L et al: Hepatopulmonary syndrome has low prevalence of pulmonary vascular abnormalities on chest computed tomography. PLoS One. 14(10):e0223805, 2019
                                              4. Hachulla AL et al: Impact of liver diseases on heart and lungs. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 12(10):2071-5, 2019
                                              5. Soulaidopoulos S et al: Review article: update on current and emergent data on hepatopulmonary syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 24(12):1285-98, 2018
                                              6. Kim YK et al: Thoracic complications of liver cirrhosis: radiologic findings. Radiographics. 29(3):825-37, 2009
                                              7. Hoeper MM et al: Portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Lancet. 363(9419):1461-8, 2004
                                              8. McAdams HP et al: The hepatopulmonary syndrome: radiologic findings in 10 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(6):1379-85, 1996
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Syndrome composed of triad
                                                              • Intrapulmonary vascular dilatation
                                                              •  alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient on room air
                                                              • Liver disease

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Angiographic Findings

                                                                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Bansal K et al: Hepatopulmonary Syndrome 2021
                                                                                          2. Zhao H et al: Technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan for diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome: a prospective study comparing brain uptake and whole-body uptake. World J Gastroenterol. 26(10):1088-97, 2020
                                                                                          3. Folador L et al: Hepatopulmonary syndrome has low prevalence of pulmonary vascular abnormalities on chest computed tomography. PLoS One. 14(10):e0223805, 2019
                                                                                          4. Hachulla AL et al: Impact of liver diseases on heart and lungs. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 12(10):2071-5, 2019
                                                                                          5. Soulaidopoulos S et al: Review article: update on current and emergent data on hepatopulmonary syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 24(12):1285-98, 2018
                                                                                          6. Kim YK et al: Thoracic complications of liver cirrhosis: radiologic findings. Radiographics. 29(3):825-37, 2009
                                                                                          7. Hoeper MM et al: Portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Lancet. 363(9419):1461-8, 2004
                                                                                          8. McAdams HP et al: The hepatopulmonary syndrome: radiologic findings in 10 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 166(6):1379-85, 1996