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Hip Dislocation
MK Jesse, MD; Julia R. Crim, MD; Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Posterior hip dislocation (PHD)
            • Anterior hip dislocation (AHD)
          • Synonyms

            • Hip subluxation, femoroacetabular dislocation or subluxation
          • Definitions

            • Disarticulation of femoral head relative to acetabulum
              • PHD: femoral head posterior to acetabulum
              • AHD: femoral head anterior to acetabulum
              • Transient dislocation: femoroacetabular alignment spontaneously restored after dislocation
              • Internal dislocation: femoral head displaced centrally into pelvis through acetabular fracture
                • Usually not considered true hip dislocation

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Jia C et al: Understanding a rare injury: an observational study of anterior-superior hip dislocations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(3):624-9, 2020
                                        2. Mandell JC et al: Traumatic hip dislocation: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know. Radiographics. 37(7):2181-201, 2017
                                        3. Kellam P et al: Systematic review and meta-analysis of avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis after traumatic hip dislocation. J Orthop Trauma. 30(1):10-6, 2016
                                        4. de Palma L et al: Outcome of unstable isolated fractures of the posterior acetabular wall associated with hip dislocation. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 24(3):341-6, 2013
                                        5. Harnroongroj T et al: Posterior acetabular arc angle of the femoral head assesses instability of posterior fracture-dislocation of the hip. Int Orthop. 37(6):1141-5, 2013
                                        6. Steppacher SD et al: Femoroacetabular impingement predisposes to traumatic posterior hip dislocation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 471(6):1937-43, 2013
                                        7. Boykin RE et al: Hip instability. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 19(6):340-9, 2011
                                        8. Dunbar RP Jr et al: Sciatic nerve entrapment in associated both-column acetabular fractures: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Orthop Trauma. 23(1):80-3, 2009
                                        9. Herrera-Soto JA et al: Traumatic hip dislocations in children and adolescents: pitfalls and complications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 17(1):15-21, 2009
                                        10. Pascarella R et al: Intra-articular fragments in acetabular fracture-dislocation. Orthopedics. 32(6):402, 2009
                                        11. Philippon MJ et al: Arthroscopic findings following traumatic hip dislocation in 14 professional athletes. Arthroscopy. 25(2):169-74, 2009
                                        12. Uzel AP et al: Hip subluxation associated with Pipkin II fracture: an injury to look for before reduction. Musculoskelet Surg. 93(1):33-5, 2009
                                        13. Sah AP et al: Traumatic simultaneous asymmetric hip dislocations and motor vehicle accidents. Orthopedics. 31(6):613, 2008
                                        14. Bhandari M et al: Predictors of clinical and radiological outcome in patients with fractures of the acetabulum and concomitant posterior dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(12):1618-24, 2006
                                        15. Sahin V et al: Traumatic dislocation and fracture-dislocation of the hip: a long-term follow-up study. J Trauma. 54(3):520-9, 2003
                                        16. Brooks RA et al: Diagnosis and imaging studies of traumatic hip dislocations in the adult. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (377):15-23, 2000
                                        17. Fairbairn KJ et al: Gas bubbles in the hip joint on CT: an indication of recent dislocation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(4):931-4, 1995
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Posterior hip dislocation (PHD)
                                                  • Anterior hip dislocation (AHD)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Hip subluxation, femoroacetabular dislocation or subluxation
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Disarticulation of femoral head relative to acetabulum
                                                    • PHD: femoral head posterior to acetabulum
                                                    • AHD: femoral head anterior to acetabulum
                                                    • Transient dislocation: femoroacetabular alignment spontaneously restored after dislocation
                                                    • Internal dislocation: femoral head displaced centrally into pelvis through acetabular fracture
                                                      • Usually not considered true hip dislocation

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Jia C et al: Understanding a rare injury: an observational study of anterior-superior hip dislocations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 214(3):624-9, 2020
                                                                              2. Mandell JC et al: Traumatic hip dislocation: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know. Radiographics. 37(7):2181-201, 2017
                                                                              3. Kellam P et al: Systematic review and meta-analysis of avascular necrosis and posttraumatic arthritis after traumatic hip dislocation. J Orthop Trauma. 30(1):10-6, 2016
                                                                              4. de Palma L et al: Outcome of unstable isolated fractures of the posterior acetabular wall associated with hip dislocation. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 24(3):341-6, 2013
                                                                              5. Harnroongroj T et al: Posterior acetabular arc angle of the femoral head assesses instability of posterior fracture-dislocation of the hip. Int Orthop. 37(6):1141-5, 2013
                                                                              6. Steppacher SD et al: Femoroacetabular impingement predisposes to traumatic posterior hip dislocation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 471(6):1937-43, 2013
                                                                              7. Boykin RE et al: Hip instability. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 19(6):340-9, 2011
                                                                              8. Dunbar RP Jr et al: Sciatic nerve entrapment in associated both-column acetabular fractures: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. J Orthop Trauma. 23(1):80-3, 2009
                                                                              9. Herrera-Soto JA et al: Traumatic hip dislocations in children and adolescents: pitfalls and complications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 17(1):15-21, 2009
                                                                              10. Pascarella R et al: Intra-articular fragments in acetabular fracture-dislocation. Orthopedics. 32(6):402, 2009
                                                                              11. Philippon MJ et al: Arthroscopic findings following traumatic hip dislocation in 14 professional athletes. Arthroscopy. 25(2):169-74, 2009
                                                                              12. Uzel AP et al: Hip subluxation associated with Pipkin II fracture: an injury to look for before reduction. Musculoskelet Surg. 93(1):33-5, 2009
                                                                              13. Sah AP et al: Traumatic simultaneous asymmetric hip dislocations and motor vehicle accidents. Orthopedics. 31(6):613, 2008
                                                                              14. Bhandari M et al: Predictors of clinical and radiological outcome in patients with fractures of the acetabulum and concomitant posterior dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(12):1618-24, 2006
                                                                              15. Sahin V et al: Traumatic dislocation and fracture-dislocation of the hip: a long-term follow-up study. J Trauma. 54(3):520-9, 2003
                                                                              16. Brooks RA et al: Diagnosis and imaging studies of traumatic hip dislocations in the adult. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (377):15-23, 2000
                                                                              17. Fairbairn KJ et al: Gas bubbles in the hip joint on CT: an indication of recent dislocation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(4):931-4, 1995