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HIV Nephropathy
Alessandro Furlan, MD; Ghaneh Fananapazir, MD, FSAR, FSRU, FSABI
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)
              • Definitions

                • Progressive chronic renal disease in patients with HIV infection histologically characterized by focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (collapsing glomerulopathy)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Elec FI et al: Difficulties in diagnosing HIV-associated nephropathy in kidney transplanted patients. The role of ultrasound and CEUS. Med Ultrason. 22(4):488-91, 2020
                                            2. Kelahan LC et al: Ultrasound assessment of acute kidney injury. Ultrasound Q. 35(2):173-80, 2019
                                            3. Lucas GM et al: Clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease in patients infected with HIV: 2014 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 59(9):e96-138, 2014
                                            4. Mallipattu SK et al: The changing epidemiology of HIV-related chronic kidney disease in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Kidney Int. 86(2):259-65, 2014
                                            5. Ross MJ: Advances in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated kidney diseases. Kidney Int. 86(2):266-74, 2014
                                            6. Mallipattu SK et al: The new epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease. J AIDS Clin Res. Suppl 4:001, 2012
                                            7. Kalayjian RC: The treatment of HIV-associated nephropathy. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 17(1):59-71, 2010
                                            8. Post FA et al: Predictors of renal outcome in HIV-associated nephropathy. Clin Infect Dis. 46(8):1282-9, 2008
                                            9. Symeonidou C et al: Imaging and histopathologic features of HIV-related renal disease. RadioGraphics 28: 1339-54; 2008
                                            10. Atta MG et al: Sonography as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. J Ultrasound Med. 23(5):603-10; quiz 612-3, 2004
                                            11. Herman ES et al: HIV-associated nephropathy: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Nephrol. 23(2):200-8, 2003
                                            12. Di Fiori JL et al: Diagnostic sonography of HIV-associated nephropathy: new observations and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(3):713-6, 1998
                                            13. Miller FH et al: Renal manifestations of AIDS. Radiographics. 13(3):587-96, 1993
                                            14. Kay CJ: Renal diseases in patients with AIDS: sonographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 159(3):551-4, 1992
                                            15. Kuhlman JE et al: Retroperitoneal and pelvic CT of patients with AIDS: primary and secondary involvement of the genitourinary tract. Radiographics. 11(3):473-83, 1991
                                            16. Rao TK et al: Associated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 310(11):669-73, 1984
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Progressive chronic renal disease in patients with HIV infection histologically characterized by focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (collapsing glomerulopathy)

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Elec FI et al: Difficulties in diagnosing HIV-associated nephropathy in kidney transplanted patients. The role of ultrasound and CEUS. Med Ultrason. 22(4):488-91, 2020
                                                                                      2. Kelahan LC et al: Ultrasound assessment of acute kidney injury. Ultrasound Q. 35(2):173-80, 2019
                                                                                      3. Lucas GM et al: Clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic kidney disease in patients infected with HIV: 2014 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 59(9):e96-138, 2014
                                                                                      4. Mallipattu SK et al: The changing epidemiology of HIV-related chronic kidney disease in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Kidney Int. 86(2):259-65, 2014
                                                                                      5. Ross MJ: Advances in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated kidney diseases. Kidney Int. 86(2):266-74, 2014
                                                                                      6. Mallipattu SK et al: The new epidemiology of HIV-related kidney disease. J AIDS Clin Res. Suppl 4:001, 2012
                                                                                      7. Kalayjian RC: The treatment of HIV-associated nephropathy. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 17(1):59-71, 2010
                                                                                      8. Post FA et al: Predictors of renal outcome in HIV-associated nephropathy. Clin Infect Dis. 46(8):1282-9, 2008
                                                                                      9. Symeonidou C et al: Imaging and histopathologic features of HIV-related renal disease. RadioGraphics 28: 1339-54; 2008
                                                                                      10. Atta MG et al: Sonography as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. J Ultrasound Med. 23(5):603-10; quiz 612-3, 2004
                                                                                      11. Herman ES et al: HIV-associated nephropathy: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Nephrol. 23(2):200-8, 2003
                                                                                      12. Di Fiori JL et al: Diagnostic sonography of HIV-associated nephropathy: new observations and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(3):713-6, 1998
                                                                                      13. Miller FH et al: Renal manifestations of AIDS. Radiographics. 13(3):587-96, 1993
                                                                                      14. Kay CJ: Renal diseases in patients with AIDS: sonographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 159(3):551-4, 1992
                                                                                      15. Kuhlman JE et al: Retroperitoneal and pelvic CT of patients with AIDS: primary and secondary involvement of the genitourinary tract. Radiographics. 11(3):473-83, 1991
                                                                                      16. Rao TK et al: Associated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 310(11):669-73, 1984