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Horseshoe Kidney
Jane S. Kim, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Congenital anomaly in which kidneys are fused at lower poles in midline
              • In contradistinction to crossed fused ectopia (CFE), where both kidneys are located on 1 side

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Houat AP et al: Congenital anomalies of the upper urinary tract: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 41(2):462-86, 2021
                                          2. Kirkpatrick JJ et al: Horseshoe kidney. StatPearls Publishing. 2021
                                          3. Taghavi K et al: The horseshoe kidney: surgical anatomy and embryology. J Pediatr Urol. 12(5):275-80, 2016
                                          4. Sakala MD et al: The horseshoe kidney. Abdom Imaging. 40(7):2910-1, 2015
                                          5. Natsis K et al: Horseshoe kidney: a review of anatomy and pathology. Surg Radiol Anat. 36(6):517-26, 2014
                                          6. O'Brien J et al: Imaging of horseshoe kidneys and their complications. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 52(3):216-26, 2008
                                          7. Strauss S et al: Sonographic features of horseshoe kidney: review of 34 patients. J Ultrasound Med. 19(1):27-31, 2000
                                          8. Banerjee B et al: Ultrasound diagnosis of horseshoe kidney. Br J Radiol. 64(766):898-900, 1991
                                          9. Grainger R et al: Horseshoe kidney--a review of the presentation, associated congenital anomalies and complications in 73 patients. Ir Med J. 76(7):315-7, 1983
                                          10. Mindell HJ et al: Horseshoe kidney: ultrasonic demonstration. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 129(3):526-7, 1977
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Congenital anomaly in which kidneys are fused at lower poles in midline
                                                      • In contradistinction to crossed fused ectopia (CFE), where both kidneys are located on 1 side

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Houat AP et al: Congenital anomalies of the upper urinary tract: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 41(2):462-86, 2021
                                                                                  2. Kirkpatrick JJ et al: Horseshoe kidney. StatPearls Publishing. 2021
                                                                                  3. Taghavi K et al: The horseshoe kidney: surgical anatomy and embryology. J Pediatr Urol. 12(5):275-80, 2016
                                                                                  4. Sakala MD et al: The horseshoe kidney. Abdom Imaging. 40(7):2910-1, 2015
                                                                                  5. Natsis K et al: Horseshoe kidney: a review of anatomy and pathology. Surg Radiol Anat. 36(6):517-26, 2014
                                                                                  6. O'Brien J et al: Imaging of horseshoe kidneys and their complications. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 52(3):216-26, 2008
                                                                                  7. Strauss S et al: Sonographic features of horseshoe kidney: review of 34 patients. J Ultrasound Med. 19(1):27-31, 2000
                                                                                  8. Banerjee B et al: Ultrasound diagnosis of horseshoe kidney. Br J Radiol. 64(766):898-900, 1991
                                                                                  9. Grainger R et al: Horseshoe kidney--a review of the presentation, associated congenital anomalies and complications in 73 patients. Ir Med J. 76(7):315-7, 1983
                                                                                  10. Mindell HJ et al: Horseshoe kidney: ultrasonic demonstration. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 129(3):526-7, 1977