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Hydrocele
Bryan R. Foster, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Hydrocele: Congenital or acquired serous fluid contained within layers of tunica vaginalis
                • Communicating hydrocele: Patent processus vaginalis from internal inguinal ring to scrotum
                • Funicular hydrocele: Patent processus vaginalis at proximal end only near internal inguinal ring
                • Encysted hydrocele: Closed proximal and distal ends of processus vaginalis with patent, fluid-containing middle forming cyst
                • Abdominalscrotal hydrocele: Communicating hydrocele with intraabdominal fluid collection
                • Canal of Nuck hydrocele: Hydrocele in females

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Chen F et al: The "falling snow" sign. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                          2. Loloi J et al: Scrotal hydrocele in acute pancreatitis. Urology. 132:e5-7, 2019
                                          3. Thomas AK et al: Canal of Nuck abnormalities. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2019
                                          4. Zawaideh JP et al: Tension hydrocele as an additional cause of acute scrotum: case series and literature review. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                          5. Gandhi J et al: Testicular compartment syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. Transl Androl Urol. 5(6):927-34, 2016
                                          6. Rafailidis V et al: Nonobliteration of the processus vaginalis: sonography of related abnormalities in children. J Ultrasound Med. 35(4):805-18, 2016
                                          7. Otabil KB et al: Filarial hydrocele: a neglected condition of a neglected tropical disease. J Infect Dev Ctries. 9(5):456-62, 2015
                                          8. Rafailidis V et al: Sonography of the scrotum: from appendages to scrotolithiasis. J Ultrasound Med. 34(3):507-18, 2015
                                          9. Garriga V et al: US of the tunica vaginalis testis: anatomic relationships and pathologic conditions. Radiographics. 29(7):2017-32, 2009
                                          10. Onol SY et al: A novel pull-through technique for the surgical management of idiopathic hydrocele. J Urol. 181(3):1201-5, 2009
                                          11. Turgut AT et al: A novel parameter by EFOV US for the quantification and the distinction of physiological amount of scrotal fluid and hydrocele: ratio of testis volume/scrotum volume. Eur J Radiol. 63(3):414-9, 2007
                                          12. Belman AB: Abdominoscrotal hydrocele in infancy: a review and presentation of the scrotal approach for correction. J Urol. 165(1):225-7, 2001
                                          13. Kapur P et al: Pediatric hernias and hydroceles. Pediatr Clin North Am. 45(4):773-89, 1998
                                          14. Rathour DP et al: Sonography of abdomino-scrotal hydrocele. Australas Radiol. 38(4):282-3, 1994
                                          15. Fowler RC et al: Scrotal ultrasonography: a clinical evaluation. Br J Radiol. 60(715):649-54, 1987
                                          16. Krone KD et al: Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am. 23(1):121-39, 1985
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Hydrocele: Congenital or acquired serous fluid contained within layers of tunica vaginalis
                                                        • Communicating hydrocele: Patent processus vaginalis from internal inguinal ring to scrotum
                                                        • Funicular hydrocele: Patent processus vaginalis at proximal end only near internal inguinal ring
                                                        • Encysted hydrocele: Closed proximal and distal ends of processus vaginalis with patent, fluid-containing middle forming cyst
                                                        • Abdominalscrotal hydrocele: Communicating hydrocele with intraabdominal fluid collection
                                                        • Canal of Nuck hydrocele: Hydrocele in females

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Chen F et al: The "falling snow" sign. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                                                                  2. Loloi J et al: Scrotal hydrocele in acute pancreatitis. Urology. 132:e5-7, 2019
                                                                                  3. Thomas AK et al: Canal of Nuck abnormalities. J Ultrasound Med. ePub, 2019
                                                                                  4. Zawaideh JP et al: Tension hydrocele as an additional cause of acute scrotum: case series and literature review. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2019
                                                                                  5. Gandhi J et al: Testicular compartment syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. Transl Androl Urol. 5(6):927-34, 2016
                                                                                  6. Rafailidis V et al: Nonobliteration of the processus vaginalis: sonography of related abnormalities in children. J Ultrasound Med. 35(4):805-18, 2016
                                                                                  7. Otabil KB et al: Filarial hydrocele: a neglected condition of a neglected tropical disease. J Infect Dev Ctries. 9(5):456-62, 2015
                                                                                  8. Rafailidis V et al: Sonography of the scrotum: from appendages to scrotolithiasis. J Ultrasound Med. 34(3):507-18, 2015
                                                                                  9. Garriga V et al: US of the tunica vaginalis testis: anatomic relationships and pathologic conditions. Radiographics. 29(7):2017-32, 2009
                                                                                  10. Onol SY et al: A novel pull-through technique for the surgical management of idiopathic hydrocele. J Urol. 181(3):1201-5, 2009
                                                                                  11. Turgut AT et al: A novel parameter by EFOV US for the quantification and the distinction of physiological amount of scrotal fluid and hydrocele: ratio of testis volume/scrotum volume. Eur J Radiol. 63(3):414-9, 2007
                                                                                  12. Belman AB: Abdominoscrotal hydrocele in infancy: a review and presentation of the scrotal approach for correction. J Urol. 165(1):225-7, 2001
                                                                                  13. Kapur P et al: Pediatric hernias and hydroceles. Pediatr Clin North Am. 45(4):773-89, 1998
                                                                                  14. Rathour DP et al: Sonography of abdomino-scrotal hydrocele. Australas Radiol. 38(4):282-3, 1994
                                                                                  15. Fowler RC et al: Scrotal ultrasonography: a clinical evaluation. Br J Radiol. 60(715):649-54, 1987
                                                                                  16. Krone KD et al: Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am. 23(1):121-39, 1985