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Hydrometrocolpos
Sara M. O'Hara, MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Hematometrocolpos, hydrometra, hematometra, HMC
          • Definitions

            • Dilation of vagina or vagina & uterus secondary to distal stenosis, atresia, transverse vaginal septum, or imperforate membrane
              • Prefix: Hydro- meaning fluid, hemato- meaning blood
              • Suffix: -metra meaning uterine cavity
              • Suffix: -metrocolpos meaning uterus & vagina

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Other Modality Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kraus SJ: Radiologic diagnosis of a newborn with cloaca. Semin Pediatr Surg. 25(2):76-81, 2016
                                      2. Mansouri R et al: A case of obstructed hemivagina with cctopic ureter leading to severe hydrocolpos and contralateral renal outflow tract obstruction in a aeonate. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 28(5):e131-3, 2015
                                      3. Lueth ET et al: McKusick Kaufman syndrome, complications arising at puberty. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 27(6):e125-6, 2014
                                      4. Cerrah Celayir A et al: Spectrum of etiologies causing hydrometrocolpos. J Neonatal Surg. 2(1):5, 2013
                                      5. Han BH et al: Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome) suspected on the presence of hydrocolpos on prenatal sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 41(6):380-2, 2013
                                      6. Vitale V et al: Imperforate hymen causing congenital hydrometrocolpos. J Ultrasound. 16(1):37-9, 2013
                                      7. Ameh EA et al: Congenital vaginal obstruction in neonates and infants: recognition and management. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 24(2):74-8, 2011
                                      8. Johal NS et al: Neonatal imperforate hymen causing obstruction of the urinary tract. Urology. 73(4):750-1, 2009
                                      9. Liu YP et al: Fetal MRI of hydrometrocolpos with septate vagina and uterus didelphys as well as massive urinary ascites due to cloacal malformation. Pediatr Radiol. 39(8):877, 2009
                                      10. Cherian MP et al: Hydrometrocolpos and acute renal failure: a rare neonatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. J Pediatr Urol. 4(4):313-6, 2008
                                      11. Shaked O et al: Hydrometrocolpos--diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 21(6):317-21, 2008
                                      12. Gholoum S et al: Management and outcome of patients with combined vaginal septum, bifid uterus, and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome). J Pediatr Surg. 41(5):987-92, 2006
                                      13. Nazir Z et al: Congenital vaginal obstructions: varied presentation and outcome. Pediatr Surg Int. 22(9):749-53, 2006
                                      14. Subramanian S et al: Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus. Pediatr Radiol. 36(10):1086-9, 2006
                                      15. Slavotinek AM et al: A female with complete lack of mullerian fusion, postaxial polydactyly, and tetralogy of fallot: genetic heterogeneity of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome or a unique syndrome? Am J Med Genet A. 129(1):69-72, 2004
                                      16. Geipel A et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a case of prenatally detected fetal hydrocolpos. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(2):169-72, 2001
                                      17. Hu MX et al: An unusual case of neonatal peritoneal calcifications associated with hydrometrocolpos. Pediatr Radiol. 31(10):742-4, 2001
                                      18. Slavotinek AM et al: Phenotypic overlap of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome with bardet-biedl syndrome: a literature review. Am J Med Genet. 95(3):208-15, 2000
                                      19. Amagai T et al: Endoscopic septotomy: a new surgical approach to infantile hydrometrocolpos with imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. J Pediatr Surg. 34(4):628-31, 1999
                                      20. Arena F et al: The neonatal management and surgical correction of urinary hydrometrocolpos caused by a persistent urogenital sinus. BJU Int. 84(9):1063-8, 1999
                                      21. David A et al: Hydrometrocolpos and polydactyly: a common neonatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl and McKusick-Kaufman syndromes. J Med Genet. 36(8):599-603, 1999
                                      22. Li YW et al: Unilateral occlusion of duplicated uterus with ipsilateral renal anomaly in young girls: a study with MRI. Pediatr Radiol. 25 Suppl 1:S54-9, 1995
                                      23. Woodward PJ et al: Congenital uterine malformations. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 24(5):178-97, 1995
                                      24. Blask AR et al: Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies: demonstration with sonography. Part I. Neonates and infants. Radiology. 179(1):79-83, 1991
                                      25. Scanlan KA et al: Value of transperineal sonography in the assessment of vaginal atresia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 154(3):545-8, 1990
                                      26. Wu A et al: Sonography of pelvic masses in children: diagnostic predictability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(6):1199-202, 1987
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Hematometrocolpos, hydrometra, hematometra, HMC
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Dilation of vagina or vagina & uterus secondary to distal stenosis, atresia, transverse vaginal septum, or imperforate membrane
                                                  • Prefix: Hydro- meaning fluid, hemato- meaning blood
                                                  • Suffix: -metra meaning uterine cavity
                                                  • Suffix: -metrocolpos meaning uterus & vagina

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Other Modality Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kraus SJ: Radiologic diagnosis of a newborn with cloaca. Semin Pediatr Surg. 25(2):76-81, 2016
                                                                          2. Mansouri R et al: A case of obstructed hemivagina with cctopic ureter leading to severe hydrocolpos and contralateral renal outflow tract obstruction in a aeonate. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 28(5):e131-3, 2015
                                                                          3. Lueth ET et al: McKusick Kaufman syndrome, complications arising at puberty. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 27(6):e125-6, 2014
                                                                          4. Cerrah Celayir A et al: Spectrum of etiologies causing hydrometrocolpos. J Neonatal Surg. 2(1):5, 2013
                                                                          5. Han BH et al: Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome) suspected on the presence of hydrocolpos on prenatal sonography. J Clin Ultrasound. 41(6):380-2, 2013
                                                                          6. Vitale V et al: Imperforate hymen causing congenital hydrometrocolpos. J Ultrasound. 16(1):37-9, 2013
                                                                          7. Ameh EA et al: Congenital vaginal obstruction in neonates and infants: recognition and management. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 24(2):74-8, 2011
                                                                          8. Johal NS et al: Neonatal imperforate hymen causing obstruction of the urinary tract. Urology. 73(4):750-1, 2009
                                                                          9. Liu YP et al: Fetal MRI of hydrometrocolpos with septate vagina and uterus didelphys as well as massive urinary ascites due to cloacal malformation. Pediatr Radiol. 39(8):877, 2009
                                                                          10. Cherian MP et al: Hydrometrocolpos and acute renal failure: a rare neonatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. J Pediatr Urol. 4(4):313-6, 2008
                                                                          11. Shaked O et al: Hydrometrocolpos--diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 21(6):317-21, 2008
                                                                          12. Gholoum S et al: Management and outcome of patients with combined vaginal septum, bifid uterus, and ipsilateral renal agenesis (Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome). J Pediatr Surg. 41(5):987-92, 2006
                                                                          13. Nazir Z et al: Congenital vaginal obstructions: varied presentation and outcome. Pediatr Surg Int. 22(9):749-53, 2006
                                                                          14. Subramanian S et al: Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus. Pediatr Radiol. 36(10):1086-9, 2006
                                                                          15. Slavotinek AM et al: A female with complete lack of mullerian fusion, postaxial polydactyly, and tetralogy of fallot: genetic heterogeneity of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome or a unique syndrome? Am J Med Genet A. 129(1):69-72, 2004
                                                                          16. Geipel A et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a case of prenatally detected fetal hydrocolpos. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(2):169-72, 2001
                                                                          17. Hu MX et al: An unusual case of neonatal peritoneal calcifications associated with hydrometrocolpos. Pediatr Radiol. 31(10):742-4, 2001
                                                                          18. Slavotinek AM et al: Phenotypic overlap of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome with bardet-biedl syndrome: a literature review. Am J Med Genet. 95(3):208-15, 2000
                                                                          19. Amagai T et al: Endoscopic septotomy: a new surgical approach to infantile hydrometrocolpos with imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. J Pediatr Surg. 34(4):628-31, 1999
                                                                          20. Arena F et al: The neonatal management and surgical correction of urinary hydrometrocolpos caused by a persistent urogenital sinus. BJU Int. 84(9):1063-8, 1999
                                                                          21. David A et al: Hydrometrocolpos and polydactyly: a common neonatal presentation of Bardet-Biedl and McKusick-Kaufman syndromes. J Med Genet. 36(8):599-603, 1999
                                                                          22. Li YW et al: Unilateral occlusion of duplicated uterus with ipsilateral renal anomaly in young girls: a study with MRI. Pediatr Radiol. 25 Suppl 1:S54-9, 1995
                                                                          23. Woodward PJ et al: Congenital uterine malformations. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 24(5):178-97, 1995
                                                                          24. Blask AR et al: Obstructed uterovaginal anomalies: demonstration with sonography. Part I. Neonates and infants. Radiology. 179(1):79-83, 1991
                                                                          25. Scanlan KA et al: Value of transperineal sonography in the assessment of vaginal atresia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 154(3):545-8, 1990
                                                                          26. Wu A et al: Sonography of pelvic masses in children: diagnostic predictability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(6):1199-202, 1987