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Hydronephrosis
Amie M. McPherson, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Hydronephrosis
            • Dilation of collecting system, which can be caused by obstruction of urinary outflow 
            • Hydroureter/hydronephrosis may persist after obstruction has resolved

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Roudakova K et al: The evolving epidemiology of stone disease. Indian J Urol. 30(1):44-8, 2014
                                      2. Estrada CR Jr: Prenatal hydronephrosis: early evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 18(4):401-3, 2008
                                      3. Hunsche A et al: Increasing the dose of furosemide in patients with azotemia and suspected obstruction. Clin Nucl Med. 29(3):149-53, 2004
                                      4. Karam M et al: Diuretic renogram clearance half-times in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy: effect of age and previous surgery. Nucl Med Commun. 24(7):797-807, 2003
                                      5. O'Reilly PH; Consensus Committee of the Society of Radionuclides in Nephrourology: Standardization of the renogram technique for investigating the dilated upper urinary tract and assessing the results of surgery. BJU Int. 91(3):239-43, 2003
                                      6. Itoh K: 99mTc-MAG3: review of pharmacokinetics, clinical application to renal diseases and quantification of renal function. Ann Nucl Med. 15(3):179-90, 2001
                                      7. Wong DC et al: Diuretic renography with the addition of quantitative gravity-assisted drainage in infants and children. J Nucl Med. 41(6):1030-6, 2000
                                      8. Rossleigh MA et al: Determination of the normal range of furosemide half-clearance times when using Tc-99m MAG3. Clin Nucl Med. 19(10):880-2, 1994
                                      9. Blaufox MD: Procedures of choice in renal nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med. 32(6):1301-9, 1991
                                      10. O'Reilly PH et al: The dilated non-obstructed renal pelvis. Br J Urol. 53(3):205-9, 1981
                                      11. O'Reilly PH et al: Diuresis renography in equivocal urinary tract obstruction. Br J Urol. 50(2):76-80, 1978
                                      12. ACR–SPR PRACTICE PARAMETER FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Definitions

                                              • Hydronephrosis
                                                • Dilation of collecting system, which can be caused by obstruction of urinary outflow 
                                                • Hydroureter/hydronephrosis may persist after obstruction has resolved

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Roudakova K et al: The evolving epidemiology of stone disease. Indian J Urol. 30(1):44-8, 2014
                                                                          2. Estrada CR Jr: Prenatal hydronephrosis: early evaluation. Curr Opin Urol. 18(4):401-3, 2008
                                                                          3. Hunsche A et al: Increasing the dose of furosemide in patients with azotemia and suspected obstruction. Clin Nucl Med. 29(3):149-53, 2004
                                                                          4. Karam M et al: Diuretic renogram clearance half-times in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy: effect of age and previous surgery. Nucl Med Commun. 24(7):797-807, 2003
                                                                          5. O'Reilly PH; Consensus Committee of the Society of Radionuclides in Nephrourology: Standardization of the renogram technique for investigating the dilated upper urinary tract and assessing the results of surgery. BJU Int. 91(3):239-43, 2003
                                                                          6. Itoh K: 99mTc-MAG3: review of pharmacokinetics, clinical application to renal diseases and quantification of renal function. Ann Nucl Med. 15(3):179-90, 2001
                                                                          7. Wong DC et al: Diuretic renography with the addition of quantitative gravity-assisted drainage in infants and children. J Nucl Med. 41(6):1030-6, 2000
                                                                          8. Rossleigh MA et al: Determination of the normal range of furosemide half-clearance times when using Tc-99m MAG3. Clin Nucl Med. 19(10):880-2, 1994
                                                                          9. Blaufox MD: Procedures of choice in renal nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med. 32(6):1301-9, 1991
                                                                          10. O'Reilly PH et al: The dilated non-obstructed renal pelvis. Br J Urol. 53(3):205-9, 1981
                                                                          11. O'Reilly PH et al: Diuresis renography in equivocal urinary tract obstruction. Br J Urol. 50(2):76-80, 1978
                                                                          12. ACR–SPR PRACTICE PARAMETER FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY