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Hydronephrosis
Ashish P. Wasnik, MD, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Renal collecting system dilation, pelvicalyceal dilatation, pelvocaliectasis
          • Definitions

            • Dilation of renal collecting (pelvicalyceal) system ± ureteral dilation

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Bold MS et al: Detection of distal ureteral stones in pregnancy using transvaginal ultrasound. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2020
                                    2. Has R et al: Prenatal diagnosis and findings in ureteropelvic junction type hydronephrosis. Front Pediatr. 8:492, 2020
                                    3. Manoharan D et al: Split bolus dual-energy CT urography after urine dilution: a one-stop shop for detection and characterisation of urolithiasis. Clin Radiol. 75(8):643.e11-8, 2020
                                    4. Nakane A et al: Appropriate timing of performing abdominal ultrasonography and termination of follow-up observation for antenatal grade 1 or 2 hydronephrosis. BMC Urol. 20(1):178, 2020
                                    5. Renard-Penna R et al: Imaging protocols for CT urography: results of a consensus conference from the French Society of Genitourinary Imaging. Eur Radiol. 30(3):1387-96, 2020
                                    6. Duran C et al: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography for vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis in children. Radiographics. 37(6):1854-69, 2017
                                    7. Sung Tae H et al: Prediction of high-grade ureteral urothelial carcinoma on CT urography. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170159, 2017
                                    8. Liu DB et al: Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management. Clin Perinatol. 41(3):661-78, 2014
                                    9. Nguyen HT et al: Multidisciplinary consensus on the classification of prenatal and postnatal urinary tract dilation (UTD classification system). J Pediatr Urol. 10(6):982-98, 2014
                                    10. Jandaghi AB et al: Assessment of ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter by urinary stone with color Doppler and duplex Doppler examinations. Urolithiasis. 41(2):159-63, 2013
                                    11. Woźniak MM et al: 2D/3D/4D contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children - can it replace voiding cystourethrography? J Ultrason. 13(55):394-407, 2013
                                    12. Piazzese EM et al: The renal resistive index as a predictor of acute hydronephrosis in patients with renal colic. J Ultrasound. 15(4):239-46, 2012
                                    13. Becker A et al: Obstructive uropathy. Early Hum Dev. 82(1):15-22, 2006
                                    14. Perez-Brayfield MR et al: A prospective study comparing ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of hydronephrosis. J Urol. 170(4 Pt 1):1330-4, 2003
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Renal collecting system dilation, pelvicalyceal dilatation, pelvocaliectasis
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Dilation of renal collecting (pelvicalyceal) system ± ureteral dilation

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Bold MS et al: Detection of distal ureteral stones in pregnancy using transvaginal ultrasound. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2020
                                                                      2. Has R et al: Prenatal diagnosis and findings in ureteropelvic junction type hydronephrosis. Front Pediatr. 8:492, 2020
                                                                      3. Manoharan D et al: Split bolus dual-energy CT urography after urine dilution: a one-stop shop for detection and characterisation of urolithiasis. Clin Radiol. 75(8):643.e11-8, 2020
                                                                      4. Nakane A et al: Appropriate timing of performing abdominal ultrasonography and termination of follow-up observation for antenatal grade 1 or 2 hydronephrosis. BMC Urol. 20(1):178, 2020
                                                                      5. Renard-Penna R et al: Imaging protocols for CT urography: results of a consensus conference from the French Society of Genitourinary Imaging. Eur Radiol. 30(3):1387-96, 2020
                                                                      6. Duran C et al: Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography for vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis in children. Radiographics. 37(6):1854-69, 2017
                                                                      7. Sung Tae H et al: Prediction of high-grade ureteral urothelial carcinoma on CT urography. Br J Radiol. 90(1078):20170159, 2017
                                                                      8. Liu DB et al: Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management. Clin Perinatol. 41(3):661-78, 2014
                                                                      9. Nguyen HT et al: Multidisciplinary consensus on the classification of prenatal and postnatal urinary tract dilation (UTD classification system). J Pediatr Urol. 10(6):982-98, 2014
                                                                      10. Jandaghi AB et al: Assessment of ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter by urinary stone with color Doppler and duplex Doppler examinations. Urolithiasis. 41(2):159-63, 2013
                                                                      11. Woźniak MM et al: 2D/3D/4D contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children - can it replace voiding cystourethrography? J Ultrason. 13(55):394-407, 2013
                                                                      12. Piazzese EM et al: The renal resistive index as a predictor of acute hydronephrosis in patients with renal colic. J Ultrasound. 15(4):239-46, 2012
                                                                      13. Becker A et al: Obstructive uropathy. Early Hum Dev. 82(1):15-22, 2006
                                                                      14. Perez-Brayfield MR et al: A prospective study comparing ultrasound, nuclear scintigraphy and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of hydronephrosis. J Urol. 170(4 Pt 1):1330-4, 2003