link
Bookmarks
Hyperglycemia
Santhosh Gaddikeri, MD; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
0
0
0

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Type 1 diabetes (DM1) & type 2 diabetes (DM2)
                • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
                • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)
                • Hyperglycemia-induced hemichorea-hemiballismus (HIHH)
              • Synonyms

                • Acute hyperglycemic injury (DKA & HHS)
                • Delayed-onset diabetic striatopathy (HIHH)
                • Chronic hyperglycemic brain injury
              • Definitions

                • DKA
                  • Glucosuria, ketonuria, & ketonemia
                  • Acidosis (venous pH < 7.3 or serum bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L)
                  • Hyperglycemia (serum glucose > 11 mmol/L)
                • HHS
                  • Stupor/coma
                  • Plasma glucose > 33.3 mmol/L
                  • Serum bicarbonate > 15 mmol/L
                  • Effective serum osmolality > 320 mOsm/kg
                  • Absent/minimal ketonuria & ketonemia
                • HIHH
                  • Nonrhythmic involuntary unilateral movements of 1 or both limbs
                  • Complication of nonketotic hyperglycemia

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Stoner GD: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Am Fam Physician. 96(11):729-36, 2017
                                      2. Yu F et al: T2*-based MR imaging of hyperglycemia-induced hemichorea-hemiballism. J Neuroradiol. 44(1):24-30, 2017
                                      3. Bizet J et al: Chorea, hyperglycemia, basal ganglia syndrome (C-H-BG) in an uncontrolled diabetic patient with normal glucose levels on presentation. Am J Case Rep. 15:143-6, 2014
                                      4. Vale TC et al: Teaching video neuroimages: hemichorea-hemiballismus secondary to nonketotic hyperglycemia. Neurology. 80(16):e178, 2013
                                      5. Narayanan S: Hyperglycemia-induced hemiballismus hemichorea: a case report and brief review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 43(3):442-4, 2012
                                      6. Zaitout Z: CT and MRI findings in the basal ganglia in non-ketotic hyperglycaemia associated hemichorea and hemi-ballismus (HC-HB). Neuroradiology. 54(10):1119-20, 2012
                                      7. Cheema H et al: Hemichorea-hemiballismus in non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. J Clin Neurosci. 18(2):293-4, 2011
                                      8. Kitabchi AE et al: Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32(7):1335-43, 2009
                                      9. S Roriz-Filho J et al: (Pre)diabetes, brain aging, and cognition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1792(5):432-43, 2009
                                      10. Gosmanov AR et al: Hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). South Dartmouth, MA: Endotext, 2000
                                      Related Anatomy
                                      Loading...
                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
                                      Loading...
                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Type 1 diabetes (DM1) & type 2 diabetes (DM2)
                                                    • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
                                                    • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)
                                                    • Hyperglycemia-induced hemichorea-hemiballismus (HIHH)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Acute hyperglycemic injury (DKA & HHS)
                                                    • Delayed-onset diabetic striatopathy (HIHH)
                                                    • Chronic hyperglycemic brain injury
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • DKA
                                                      • Glucosuria, ketonuria, & ketonemia
                                                      • Acidosis (venous pH < 7.3 or serum bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L)
                                                      • Hyperglycemia (serum glucose > 11 mmol/L)
                                                    • HHS
                                                      • Stupor/coma
                                                      • Plasma glucose > 33.3 mmol/L
                                                      • Serum bicarbonate > 15 mmol/L
                                                      • Effective serum osmolality > 320 mOsm/kg
                                                      • Absent/minimal ketonuria & ketonemia
                                                    • HIHH
                                                      • Nonrhythmic involuntary unilateral movements of 1 or both limbs
                                                      • Complication of nonketotic hyperglycemia

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Stoner GD: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Am Fam Physician. 96(11):729-36, 2017
                                                                          2. Yu F et al: T2*-based MR imaging of hyperglycemia-induced hemichorea-hemiballism. J Neuroradiol. 44(1):24-30, 2017
                                                                          3. Bizet J et al: Chorea, hyperglycemia, basal ganglia syndrome (C-H-BG) in an uncontrolled diabetic patient with normal glucose levels on presentation. Am J Case Rep. 15:143-6, 2014
                                                                          4. Vale TC et al: Teaching video neuroimages: hemichorea-hemiballismus secondary to nonketotic hyperglycemia. Neurology. 80(16):e178, 2013
                                                                          5. Narayanan S: Hyperglycemia-induced hemiballismus hemichorea: a case report and brief review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 43(3):442-4, 2012
                                                                          6. Zaitout Z: CT and MRI findings in the basal ganglia in non-ketotic hyperglycaemia associated hemichorea and hemi-ballismus (HC-HB). Neuroradiology. 54(10):1119-20, 2012
                                                                          7. Cheema H et al: Hemichorea-hemiballismus in non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. J Clin Neurosci. 18(2):293-4, 2011
                                                                          8. Kitabchi AE et al: Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32(7):1335-43, 2009
                                                                          9. S Roriz-Filho J et al: (Pre)diabetes, brain aging, and cognition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1792(5):432-43, 2009
                                                                          10. Gosmanov AR et al: Hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). South Dartmouth, MA: Endotext, 2000