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Hyperplastic Vertebral Marrow
Lubdha M. Shah, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Marrow reconversion
              • Hypercellular marrow expansion
            • Definitions

              • Physiologic process in which fatty marrow is converted to red marrow in response to systemic stress

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Other Modality Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Hanrahan CJ et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part 2, T1-weighted imaging-based differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1309-21, 2011
                                            2. Shah LM et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1298-308, 2011
                                            3. Jaramillo D: Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why? Pediatr Radiol. 40(6):978-84, 2010
                                            4. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants of the bone marrow at MR imaging of the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):87-96, 2009
                                            5. Zhao J et al: MRI of the spine: image quality and normal-neoplastic bone marrow contrast at 3 T versus 1.5 T. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):873-80, 2009
                                            6. Darge K et al: Whole-body MRI in children: current status and future applications. Eur J Radiol. 68(2):289-98, 2008
                                            7. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants and frequent marrow alterations that simulate bone marrow lesions at MR imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 43(4):761-70, ix, 2005
                                            8. Zajick DC Jr et al: Benign and malignant processes: normal values and differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging in vertebral marrow. Radiology. 237(2):590-6, 2005
                                            9. Bordalo-Rodrigues M et al: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the hematopoietic marrow simulating vertebral metastasis on FDG positron emission tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):669-71, 2003
                                            10. Daldrup-Link HE et al: Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: differentiation between tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow. Eur Radiol. 12(6):1557-66, 2002
                                            11. Huang JS et al: Reduced intravertebral bone marrow fat in HIV-infected men. AIDS. 16(9):1265-9, 2002
                                            12. Plecha DM: Imaging of bone marrow disease in the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):321-7, 2000
                                            13. Baur A et al: MRI gadolinium enhancement of bone marrow: age-related changes in normals and in diffuse neoplastic infiltration. Skeletal Radiol. 26(7):414-8, 1997
                                            14. Carroll KW et al: Useful internal standards for distinguishing infiltrative marrow pathology from hematopoietic marrow at MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 7(2):394-8, 1997
                                            15. Poulton TB et al: Bone marrow reconversion in adults who are smokers: MR Imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(6):1217-21, 1993
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Marrow reconversion
                                                        • Hypercellular marrow expansion
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Physiologic process in which fatty marrow is converted to red marrow in response to systemic stress

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Other Modality Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Hanrahan CJ et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part 2, T1-weighted imaging-based differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1309-21, 2011
                                                                                      2. Shah LM et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1298-308, 2011
                                                                                      3. Jaramillo D: Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why? Pediatr Radiol. 40(6):978-84, 2010
                                                                                      4. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants of the bone marrow at MR imaging of the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):87-96, 2009
                                                                                      5. Zhao J et al: MRI of the spine: image quality and normal-neoplastic bone marrow contrast at 3 T versus 1.5 T. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):873-80, 2009
                                                                                      6. Darge K et al: Whole-body MRI in children: current status and future applications. Eur J Radiol. 68(2):289-98, 2008
                                                                                      7. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants and frequent marrow alterations that simulate bone marrow lesions at MR imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 43(4):761-70, ix, 2005
                                                                                      8. Zajick DC Jr et al: Benign and malignant processes: normal values and differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging in vertebral marrow. Radiology. 237(2):590-6, 2005
                                                                                      9. Bordalo-Rodrigues M et al: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the hematopoietic marrow simulating vertebral metastasis on FDG positron emission tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):669-71, 2003
                                                                                      10. Daldrup-Link HE et al: Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: differentiation between tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow. Eur Radiol. 12(6):1557-66, 2002
                                                                                      11. Huang JS et al: Reduced intravertebral bone marrow fat in HIV-infected men. AIDS. 16(9):1265-9, 2002
                                                                                      12. Plecha DM: Imaging of bone marrow disease in the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(3):321-7, 2000
                                                                                      13. Baur A et al: MRI gadolinium enhancement of bone marrow: age-related changes in normals and in diffuse neoplastic infiltration. Skeletal Radiol. 26(7):414-8, 1997
                                                                                      14. Carroll KW et al: Useful internal standards for distinguishing infiltrative marrow pathology from hematopoietic marrow at MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 7(2):394-8, 1997
                                                                                      15. Poulton TB et al: Bone marrow reconversion in adults who are smokers: MR Imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(6):1217-21, 1993