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Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD)
          • Synonyms

            • Pseudohypertrophy of inferior olivary nucleus
          • Definitions

            • Secondary degeneration of inferior olivary nucleus (ION), usually caused by primary lesions in dento-rubro-olivary pathway (anatomical triangle of Guillain and Mollaret)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Blanco Ulla M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Radiologia. ePub, 2015
                                      2. Carr CM et al: Frequency of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in a large retrospective cohort. J Neuroimaging. 25(2):289-95, 2015
                                      3. Sen D et al: MRI and MR tractography in bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 24(4):401-5, 2014
                                      4. Khoyratty F et al: The dentato-rubro-olivary tract: clinical dimension of this anatomical pathway. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013:934386, 2013
                                      5. Ogawa K et al: Pathological study of pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. Neuropathology. 30(1):15-23, 2010
                                      6. Lim CC et al: Images in clinical medicine. Pendular nystagmus and palatomyoclonus from hypertrophic olivary degeneration. N Engl J Med. 360(9):e12, 2009
                                      7. Hornyak M et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after surgical removal of cavernous malformations of the brain stem: report of four cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 150(2):149-56; discussion 156, 2008
                                      8. Harter DH et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of a pontine cavernoma. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 100(4):717, 2004
                                      9. Krings T et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following pontine haemorrhage: hypertensive crisis or cavernous haemangioma bleeding? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(6):797-9, 2003
                                      10. Rieder CR et al: Holmes tremor in association with bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration and palatal tremor: chronological considerations. Case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 61(2B):473-7, 2003
                                      11. Conceicao C et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Semiology with magnetic resonance. Acta Med Port. 14(1):107-11, 2001
                                      12. Goyal M et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration: metaanalysis of the temporal evolution of MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1073-7, 2000
                                      13. Salamon-Murayama N et al: Diagnosis please. Case 17: hypertrophic olivary degeneration secondary to pontine hemorrhage. Radiology. 213(3):814-7, 1999
                                      14. Tsui EY et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following surgical excision of brainstem cavernous hemangioma: a case report. Clin Imaging. 23(4):215-7, 1999
                                      15. Kim SJ et al: Cerebellar MR changes in patients with olivary hypertrophic degeneration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(9):1715-9, 1994
                                      16. Revel MP et al: MR appearance of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after contralateral cerebellar hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(1):71-2, 1991
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Pseudohypertrophy of inferior olivary nucleus
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Secondary degeneration of inferior olivary nucleus (ION), usually caused by primary lesions in dento-rubro-olivary pathway (anatomical triangle of Guillain and Mollaret)

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Blanco Ulla M et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Radiologia. ePub, 2015
                                                                          2. Carr CM et al: Frequency of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in a large retrospective cohort. J Neuroimaging. 25(2):289-95, 2015
                                                                          3. Sen D et al: MRI and MR tractography in bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 24(4):401-5, 2014
                                                                          4. Khoyratty F et al: The dentato-rubro-olivary tract: clinical dimension of this anatomical pathway. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2013:934386, 2013
                                                                          5. Ogawa K et al: Pathological study of pseudohypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus. Neuropathology. 30(1):15-23, 2010
                                                                          6. Lim CC et al: Images in clinical medicine. Pendular nystagmus and palatomyoclonus from hypertrophic olivary degeneration. N Engl J Med. 360(9):e12, 2009
                                                                          7. Hornyak M et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after surgical removal of cavernous malformations of the brain stem: report of four cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 150(2):149-56; discussion 156, 2008
                                                                          8. Harter DH et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of a pontine cavernoma. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 100(4):717, 2004
                                                                          9. Krings T et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following pontine haemorrhage: hypertensive crisis or cavernous haemangioma bleeding? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(6):797-9, 2003
                                                                          10. Rieder CR et al: Holmes tremor in association with bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration and palatal tremor: chronological considerations. Case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 61(2B):473-7, 2003
                                                                          11. Conceicao C et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration. Semiology with magnetic resonance. Acta Med Port. 14(1):107-11, 2001
                                                                          12. Goyal M et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration: metaanalysis of the temporal evolution of MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1073-7, 2000
                                                                          13. Salamon-Murayama N et al: Diagnosis please. Case 17: hypertrophic olivary degeneration secondary to pontine hemorrhage. Radiology. 213(3):814-7, 1999
                                                                          14. Tsui EY et al: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following surgical excision of brainstem cavernous hemangioma: a case report. Clin Imaging. 23(4):215-7, 1999
                                                                          15. Kim SJ et al: Cerebellar MR changes in patients with olivary hypertrophic degeneration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(9):1715-9, 1994
                                                                          16. Revel MP et al: MR appearance of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after contralateral cerebellar hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(1):71-2, 1991