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Hypopharynx Carcinoma
Philip R. Chapman, MD
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                  • Presentation

                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                      • Treatment Options

                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                        • T Staging

                          • N Staging

                            • M Staging

                              Selected References

                              1. Becker M et al: MR imaging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 30(1):53-72, 2022
                              2. Chen J et al: An MRI-based radiomics-clinical nomogram for the overall survival prediction in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a multi-cohort study. Eur Radiol. 32(3):1548-57, 2022
                              3. Kandathil A et al: PET/computed tomography: laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. PET Clin. ePub, 2022
                              4. Patel EJ et al: Human papillomavirus in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 166(1):109-17, 2022
                              5. Tomita H et al: Deep learning approach of diffusion-weighted imaging as an outcome predictor in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer patients with radiotherapy-related curative treatment: a preliminary study. Eur Radiol. ePub, 2022
                              6. Burbure N et al: Prognostic significance of human papillomavirus status and treatment modality in hypopharyngeal cancer. Head Neck. 43(10):3042-52, 2021
                              7. Chiesa-Estomba CM et al: Clinical and histopathological risk factors for distant metastasis in head and neck cancer patients. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 41(1):6-17, 2021
                              8. Fan KH et al: Prognostic value of radiologic extranodal extension in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation. Radiother Oncol. 156:217-22, 2021
                              9. Li X et al: Cancer of pharyngoesophageal junction: a different subtype from hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer? Front Oncol. 11:710245, 2021
                              10. Park CJ et al: Preoperative MRI evaluation of thyroid cartilage invasion in patients with laryngohypopharyngeal cancer: comparison of contrast-enhanced 2D spin-echo and 3D T1-weighted radial gradient recalled-echo techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 42(9):1690-4, 2021
                              11. Abdeyrim A et al: Prognostic value of lymph node ratio in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 49(1):31, 2020
                              12. Cho SJ et al: Comparison of diagnostic performance between CT and MRI for detection of cartilage invasion for primary tumor staging in patients with laryngo-hypopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 30(7):3803-12, 2020
                              13. Glastonbury CM: Critical changes in the staging of head and neck cancer. Radiol Imaging Cancer. 2(1):e190022, 2020
                              14. Li Y et al: Prevalence and prognostic impact of synchronous distant metastases in patients with hypopharynx squamous cell carcinomas: a SEER-based study. J Cancer. 10(3):620-6, 2019
                              15. Piazza C et al: Clinical and radiological evaluation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 83:35-46, 2019
                              16. Kuno H et al: Comparison of MR imaging and dual-energy CT for the evaluation of cartilage invasion by laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(3):524-31, 2018
                              17. Petersen JF et al: Trends in treatment, incidence and survival of hypopharynx cancer: a 20-year population-based study in the Netherlands. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 275(1):181-9, 2018
                              18. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                              19. Lydiatt WM et al: Head and Neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 67(2):122-37, 2017
                              20. Day D et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer: looking back, moving forward. Curr Oncol. 23(4):221-2, 2016
                              21. Wassef HR et al: PET/CT in head-neck Malignancies: the implications for personalized clinical practice. PET Clin. 11(3):219-32, 2016
                              22. Newman JR et al: Survival trends in hypopharyngeal cancer: a population-based review. Laryngoscope. 125(3):624-9, 2015
                              23. Chung EJ et al: Pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in medial wall pyriform sinus carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 124(4):882-7, 2014
                              24. Kuo P et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer incidence, treatment, and survival: temporal trends in the United States. Laryngoscope. 124(9):2064-9, 2014
                              25. Chen AY et al: Pitfalls in the staging squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):67-79, 2013
                              26. Gross BC et al: Level IIB lymph node metastasis in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: single-institution case series and review of the literature. Laryngoscope. 123(12):3032-6, 2013
                              27. Takes RP et al: Current trends in initial management of hypopharyngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery. Head Neck. 34(2):270-81, 2012
                              28. Wang Y et al: Pathways for cervical metastasis in malignant neoplasms of the head and neck region. Clin Anat. 25(1):54-71, 2012
                              29. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                              30. Wycliffe ND et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):243-58, 2007
                              31. Carvalho AL et al: Trends in incidence and prognosis for head and neck cancer in the United States: a site-specific analysis of the SEER database. Int J Cancer. 114(5):806-16, 2005
                              32. Helliwell TR: Acp best Practice No 169. Evidence based pathology: squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx. J Clin Pathol. 56(2):81-5, 2003
                              33. Werner JA et al: Functional anatomy of the lymphatic drainage system of the upper aerodigestive tract and its role in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 25(4):322-32, 2003
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              OVERVIEW

                              • General Comments

                                • Classification

                                  PATHOLOGY

                                  • Routes of Spread

                                    • General Features

                                      • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                        • Microscopic Features

                                          IMAGING FINDINGS

                                          • Detection

                                            • Staging

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                  • Treatment Options

                                                    REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                    • T Staging

                                                      • N Staging

                                                        • M Staging

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Becker M et al: MR imaging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 30(1):53-72, 2022
                                                          2. Chen J et al: An MRI-based radiomics-clinical nomogram for the overall survival prediction in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a multi-cohort study. Eur Radiol. 32(3):1548-57, 2022
                                                          3. Kandathil A et al: PET/computed tomography: laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. PET Clin. ePub, 2022
                                                          4. Patel EJ et al: Human papillomavirus in patients with hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 166(1):109-17, 2022
                                                          5. Tomita H et al: Deep learning approach of diffusion-weighted imaging as an outcome predictor in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer patients with radiotherapy-related curative treatment: a preliminary study. Eur Radiol. ePub, 2022
                                                          6. Burbure N et al: Prognostic significance of human papillomavirus status and treatment modality in hypopharyngeal cancer. Head Neck. 43(10):3042-52, 2021
                                                          7. Chiesa-Estomba CM et al: Clinical and histopathological risk factors for distant metastasis in head and neck cancer patients. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 41(1):6-17, 2021
                                                          8. Fan KH et al: Prognostic value of radiologic extranodal extension in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation. Radiother Oncol. 156:217-22, 2021
                                                          9. Li X et al: Cancer of pharyngoesophageal junction: a different subtype from hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer? Front Oncol. 11:710245, 2021
                                                          10. Park CJ et al: Preoperative MRI evaluation of thyroid cartilage invasion in patients with laryngohypopharyngeal cancer: comparison of contrast-enhanced 2D spin-echo and 3D T1-weighted radial gradient recalled-echo techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 42(9):1690-4, 2021
                                                          11. Abdeyrim A et al: Prognostic value of lymph node ratio in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 49(1):31, 2020
                                                          12. Cho SJ et al: Comparison of diagnostic performance between CT and MRI for detection of cartilage invasion for primary tumor staging in patients with laryngo-hypopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Radiol. 30(7):3803-12, 2020
                                                          13. Glastonbury CM: Critical changes in the staging of head and neck cancer. Radiol Imaging Cancer. 2(1):e190022, 2020
                                                          14. Li Y et al: Prevalence and prognostic impact of synchronous distant metastases in patients with hypopharynx squamous cell carcinomas: a SEER-based study. J Cancer. 10(3):620-6, 2019
                                                          15. Piazza C et al: Clinical and radiological evaluation of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 83:35-46, 2019
                                                          16. Kuno H et al: Comparison of MR imaging and dual-energy CT for the evaluation of cartilage invasion by laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(3):524-31, 2018
                                                          17. Petersen JF et al: Trends in treatment, incidence and survival of hypopharynx cancer: a 20-year population-based study in the Netherlands. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 275(1):181-9, 2018
                                                          18. Amin M.B. et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                          19. Lydiatt WM et al: Head and Neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 67(2):122-37, 2017
                                                          20. Day D et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer: looking back, moving forward. Curr Oncol. 23(4):221-2, 2016
                                                          21. Wassef HR et al: PET/CT in head-neck Malignancies: the implications for personalized clinical practice. PET Clin. 11(3):219-32, 2016
                                                          22. Newman JR et al: Survival trends in hypopharyngeal cancer: a population-based review. Laryngoscope. 125(3):624-9, 2015
                                                          23. Chung EJ et al: Pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in medial wall pyriform sinus carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 124(4):882-7, 2014
                                                          24. Kuo P et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer incidence, treatment, and survival: temporal trends in the United States. Laryngoscope. 124(9):2064-9, 2014
                                                          25. Chen AY et al: Pitfalls in the staging squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(1):67-79, 2013
                                                          26. Gross BC et al: Level IIB lymph node metastasis in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: single-institution case series and review of the literature. Laryngoscope. 123(12):3032-6, 2013
                                                          27. Takes RP et al: Current trends in initial management of hypopharyngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery. Head Neck. 34(2):270-81, 2012
                                                          28. Wang Y et al: Pathways for cervical metastasis in malignant neoplasms of the head and neck region. Clin Anat. 25(1):54-71, 2012
                                                          29. Becker M et al: Imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):460-79, 2008
                                                          30. Wycliffe ND et al: Hypopharyngeal cancer. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):243-58, 2007
                                                          31. Carvalho AL et al: Trends in incidence and prognosis for head and neck cancer in the United States: a site-specific analysis of the SEER database. Int J Cancer. 114(5):806-16, 2005
                                                          32. Helliwell TR: Acp best Practice No 169. Evidence based pathology: squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx. J Clin Pathol. 56(2):81-5, 2003
                                                          33. Werner JA et al: Functional anatomy of the lymphatic drainage system of the upper aerodigestive tract and its role in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 25(4):322-32, 2003