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Hypospadias
Roya Sohaey, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Opening of urethra along ventral side of penis, not tip
                  • + failure of closure of ventral foreskin
                  • + impaired corpus spongiosum differentiation
                • Female equivalent is urethra opening in vagina

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Li K et al: Prenatal diagnosis and classification of fetal hypospadias: the role and value of magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2021
                                    2. Chen Y et al: A risk prediction model for fetal hypospadias by testing maternal serum AFP and free beta-HCG. Clin Biochem. 69:21-5, 2019
                                    3. Toufaily MH et al: Hypospadias, intrauterine growth restriction, and abnormalities of the placenta. Birth Defects Res. 110(2):122-7, 2018
                                    4. Epelboym Y et al: Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal hypospadias: accuracy and outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 13(5):484.e1-4, 2017
                                    5. Li Y et al: Canalization of the urethral plate precedes fusion of the urethral folds during male penile urethral development: the double zipper hypothesis. J Urol. 193(4):1353-9, 2015
                                    6. Huisma F et al: Severe hypospadias and its association with maternal-placental factors. Am J Med Genet A. 161A(9):2183-7, 2013
                                    7. Bamberg C et al: Prenatal two- and three-dimensional imaging in two cases of severe penoscrotal hypospadias. J Clin Ultrasound. 39(9):539-43, 2011
                                    8. Odeh M et al: Sonographic fetal sex determination. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 64(1):50-7, 2009
                                    9. Odeh M et al: Hypospadias mimicking female genitalia on early second trimester sonographic examination. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(9):581-3, 2008
                                    10. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan S: Sonography of fetal micturition. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 24(6):659-63, 2004
                                    11. Cafici D et al: Prenatal diagnosis of severe hypospadias with two- and three-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 21(12):1423-6, 2002
                                    12. Meizner I et al: The 'tulip sign': a sonographic clue for in-utero diagnosis of severe hypospadias. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 19(3):250-3, 2002
                                    13. Lin SK et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a rare variant of hypospadias and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(6):678-80, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Opening of urethra along ventral side of penis, not tip
                                                    • + failure of closure of ventral foreskin
                                                    • + impaired corpus spongiosum differentiation
                                                  • Female equivalent is urethra opening in vagina

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Li K et al: Prenatal diagnosis and classification of fetal hypospadias: the role and value of magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2021
                                                                      2. Chen Y et al: A risk prediction model for fetal hypospadias by testing maternal serum AFP and free beta-HCG. Clin Biochem. 69:21-5, 2019
                                                                      3. Toufaily MH et al: Hypospadias, intrauterine growth restriction, and abnormalities of the placenta. Birth Defects Res. 110(2):122-7, 2018
                                                                      4. Epelboym Y et al: Ultrasound diagnosis of fetal hypospadias: accuracy and outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 13(5):484.e1-4, 2017
                                                                      5. Li Y et al: Canalization of the urethral plate precedes fusion of the urethral folds during male penile urethral development: the double zipper hypothesis. J Urol. 193(4):1353-9, 2015
                                                                      6. Huisma F et al: Severe hypospadias and its association with maternal-placental factors. Am J Med Genet A. 161A(9):2183-7, 2013
                                                                      7. Bamberg C et al: Prenatal two- and three-dimensional imaging in two cases of severe penoscrotal hypospadias. J Clin Ultrasound. 39(9):539-43, 2011
                                                                      8. Odeh M et al: Sonographic fetal sex determination. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 64(1):50-7, 2009
                                                                      9. Odeh M et al: Hypospadias mimicking female genitalia on early second trimester sonographic examination. J Clin Ultrasound. 36(9):581-3, 2008
                                                                      10. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan S: Sonography of fetal micturition. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 24(6):659-63, 2004
                                                                      11. Cafici D et al: Prenatal diagnosis of severe hypospadias with two- and three-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 21(12):1423-6, 2002
                                                                      12. Meizner I et al: The 'tulip sign': a sonographic clue for in-utero diagnosis of severe hypospadias. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 19(3):250-3, 2002
                                                                      13. Lin SK et al: Prenatal diagnosis of a rare variant of hypospadias and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 18(6):678-80, 2001