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Hypotensive Cerebral Infarction
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR; Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Hypotensive cerebral infarction (HCI)
        • Synonyms

          • Border zone or watershed infarction
        • Definitions

          • Infarction resulting from insufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) to meet metabolic demands (low-flow state)

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Angiographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Greer DM et al: Neuroprognostication of hypoxic-ischaemic coma in the therapeutic hypothermia era. Nat Rev Neurol. 10(4):190-203, 2014
                                        2. van der Eerden AW et al: White matter changes in comatose survivors of anoxic ischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury: comparative diffusion-tensor imaging study. Radiology. 270(2):506-16, 2014
                                        3. Phipps MS et al: Orthostatic hypotension among outpatients with ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 314(1-2):62-5, 2012
                                        4. Moore MJ et al: Reducing the gray zone: imaging spectrum of hypoperfusion and hypoxic brain injury in adults. Emerg Radiol. 17(2):123-30, 2010
                                        5. Chen CJ et al: Multi-Slice CT angiography in diagnosing total versus near occlusions of the internal carotid artery: comparison with catheter angiography. Stroke. 35(1):83-5, 2004
                                        6. Derdeyn CP et al: Severe hemodynamic impairment and border zone--region infarction. Radiology. 220(1):195-201, 2001
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Hypotensive cerebral infarction (HCI)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Border zone or watershed infarction
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Infarction resulting from insufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) to meet metabolic demands (low-flow state)

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Greer DM et al: Neuroprognostication of hypoxic-ischaemic coma in the therapeutic hypothermia era. Nat Rev Neurol. 10(4):190-203, 2014
                                                                              2. van der Eerden AW et al: White matter changes in comatose survivors of anoxic ischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury: comparative diffusion-tensor imaging study. Radiology. 270(2):506-16, 2014
                                                                              3. Phipps MS et al: Orthostatic hypotension among outpatients with ischemic stroke. J Neurol Sci. 314(1-2):62-5, 2012
                                                                              4. Moore MJ et al: Reducing the gray zone: imaging spectrum of hypoperfusion and hypoxic brain injury in adults. Emerg Radiol. 17(2):123-30, 2010
                                                                              5. Chen CJ et al: Multi-Slice CT angiography in diagnosing total versus near occlusions of the internal carotid artery: comparison with catheter angiography. Stroke. 35(1):83-5, 2004
                                                                              6. Derdeyn CP et al: Severe hemodynamic impairment and border zone--region infarction. Radiology. 220(1):195-201, 2001