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Hypothyroidism and Cretinism
Kirkland W. Davis, MD, FACR; Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Cretinism: neonatal hypothyroidism; congenital hypothyroidism
              • Due to pejorative connotations, term cretin rarely used today
            • Hashimoto thyroiditis: autoimmune/chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Chun S et al: Thyroid imaging study in children with suspected thyroid dysgenesis. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 26(1):53-9, 2021
                                    2. Lauffer P et al: Diagnosis and management of central congenital hypothyroidism. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 12:686317, 2021
                                    3. Silva CT et al: Pearls and pitfalls in pediatric thyroid imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(5):421-32, 2020
                                    4. Chang CY et al: Imaging findings of metabolic bone disease. Radiographics. 36(6):1871-87, 2016
                                    5. Wassner AJ et al: Congenital hypothyroidism: recent advances. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 22(5):407-12, 2015
                                    6. Rajatanavin R et al: Endemic cretinism in Thailand: a multidisciplinary survey. Eur J Endocrinol. 137(4):349-55, 1997
                                    7. Newland CJ et al: Congenital hypothyroidism--correlation between radiographic appearances of the knee epiphyses and biochemical data. Postgrad Med J. 67(788):553-6, 1991
                                    8. Puri R et al: Slipped upper femoral epiphysis and primary juvenile hypothyroidism. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 67(1):14-20, 1985
                                    9. Jafri SZ et al: Fetal ovarian cysts: sonographic detection and association with hypothyroidism. Radiology. 150(3):809-12, 1984
                                    10. Riddlesberger MM Jr et al: The association of juvenile hypothyroidism and cystic ovaries. Radiology. 139(1):77-80, 1981
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                        • Pathology

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Cretinism: neonatal hypothyroidism; congenital hypothyroidism
                                                • Due to pejorative connotations, term cretin rarely used today
                                              • Hashimoto thyroiditis: autoimmune/chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Chun S et al: Thyroid imaging study in children with suspected thyroid dysgenesis. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 26(1):53-9, 2021
                                                                      2. Lauffer P et al: Diagnosis and management of central congenital hypothyroidism. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 12:686317, 2021
                                                                      3. Silva CT et al: Pearls and pitfalls in pediatric thyroid imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 41(5):421-32, 2020
                                                                      4. Chang CY et al: Imaging findings of metabolic bone disease. Radiographics. 36(6):1871-87, 2016
                                                                      5. Wassner AJ et al: Congenital hypothyroidism: recent advances. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 22(5):407-12, 2015
                                                                      6. Rajatanavin R et al: Endemic cretinism in Thailand: a multidisciplinary survey. Eur J Endocrinol. 137(4):349-55, 1997
                                                                      7. Newland CJ et al: Congenital hypothyroidism--correlation between radiographic appearances of the knee epiphyses and biochemical data. Postgrad Med J. 67(788):553-6, 1991
                                                                      8. Puri R et al: Slipped upper femoral epiphysis and primary juvenile hypothyroidism. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 67(1):14-20, 1985
                                                                      9. Jafri SZ et al: Fetal ovarian cysts: sonographic detection and association with hypothyroidism. Radiology. 150(3):809-12, 1984
                                                                      10. Riddlesberger MM Jr et al: The association of juvenile hypothyroidism and cystic ovaries. Radiology. 139(1):77-80, 1981