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Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
            • Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC)
          • Synonyms

            • Pseudotumor cerebri
            • Benign intracranial hypertension
          • Definitions

            • ↑ intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause
            • Association of any medication or condition with IIH better termed "secondary pseudotumor syndrome"

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Görkem SB et al: MR imaging findings in children with pseudotumor cerebri and comparison with healthy controls. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(3):373-80, 2015
                                      2. Masri A et al: Intracranial Hypertension in Children: Etiologies, Clinical Features, and Outcome. J Child Neurol. ePub, 2015
                                      3. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for pseudotumor cerebri: a cost comparison with CSF shunting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):952-8, 2014
                                      4. Dave SB et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: an update on treatment options. Indian J Ophthalmol. 62(10):996-8, 2014
                                      5. Liguori C et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 82(19):1752-3, 2014
                                      6. Passi N et al: MR imaging of papilledema and visual pathways: effects of increased intracranial pressure and pathophysiologic mechanisms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):919-24, 2013
                                      7. Aiken AH et al: Incidence of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a mimic of the Chiari I malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(10):1901-6, 2012
                                      8. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a review of 52 patients and of model predictions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(8):1408-14, 2011
                                      9. Degnan AJ et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: brief review of clinical syndrome and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):1986-93, 2011
                                      10. Furtado SV et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: as a cause for early deterioration after Chiari I malformation surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(8):1007-12, 2009
                                      11. Hershko AY et al: Increased intracranial pressure related to systemic lupus erythematosus: a 26-year experience. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 38(2):110-5, 2008
                                      12. Randhawa S et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 19(6):445-53, 2008
                                      13. Agarwal MR et al: Optic nerve sheath fenestration for vision preservation in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurg Focus. 23(5):E7, 2007
                                      14. Binder DK et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 54(3):538-51; discussion 551-2, 2004
                                      15. Bastin ME et al: Diffuse brain oedema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(12):1693-6, 2003
                                      16. Bandyopadhyay S: Pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Neurol. 58(10):1699-701, 2001
                                      17. Suzuki H et al: MR imaging of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):196-9, 2001
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
                                                • Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Pseudotumor cerebri
                                                • Benign intracranial hypertension
                                              • Definitions

                                                • ↑ intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable cause
                                                • Association of any medication or condition with IIH better termed "secondary pseudotumor syndrome"

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Görkem SB et al: MR imaging findings in children with pseudotumor cerebri and comparison with healthy controls. Childs Nerv Syst. 31(3):373-80, 2015
                                                                          2. Masri A et al: Intracranial Hypertension in Children: Etiologies, Clinical Features, and Outcome. J Child Neurol. ePub, 2015
                                                                          3. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for pseudotumor cerebri: a cost comparison with CSF shunting. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(5):952-8, 2014
                                                                          4. Dave SB et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: an update on treatment options. Indian J Ophthalmol. 62(10):996-8, 2014
                                                                          5. Liguori C et al: Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 82(19):1752-3, 2014
                                                                          6. Passi N et al: MR imaging of papilledema and visual pathways: effects of increased intracranial pressure and pathophysiologic mechanisms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 34(5):919-24, 2013
                                                                          7. Aiken AH et al: Incidence of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a mimic of the Chiari I malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(10):1901-6, 2012
                                                                          8. Ahmed RM et al: Transverse sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a review of 52 patients and of model predictions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(8):1408-14, 2011
                                                                          9. Degnan AJ et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: brief review of clinical syndrome and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):1986-93, 2011
                                                                          10. Furtado SV et al: Pseudotumor cerebri: as a cause for early deterioration after Chiari I malformation surgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 25(8):1007-12, 2009
                                                                          11. Hershko AY et al: Increased intracranial pressure related to systemic lupus erythematosus: a 26-year experience. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 38(2):110-5, 2008
                                                                          12. Randhawa S et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 19(6):445-53, 2008
                                                                          13. Agarwal MR et al: Optic nerve sheath fenestration for vision preservation in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurg Focus. 23(5):E7, 2007
                                                                          14. Binder DK et al: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 54(3):538-51; discussion 551-2, 2004
                                                                          15. Bastin ME et al: Diffuse brain oedema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74(12):1693-6, 2003
                                                                          16. Bandyopadhyay S: Pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Neurol. 58(10):1699-701, 2001
                                                                          17. Suzuki H et al: MR imaging of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(1):196-9, 2001